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Rekonstruksi Julius Caesar

Rekonstruksi Julius Caesar


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Antistius menyampaikan temuannya kepada orang-orang Romawi di tempat pengumuman politik penting - forum. Selain menjadi catatan pertama dari seorang dokter yang bertindak sebagai saksi ahli pembunuhan, acara tersebut memberi kita kata ‘forensik ‘ -‘dari forum&rsquo. 2000 tahun kemudian, istilah itu diterapkan sekali lagi pada jenis otopsi yang sangat berbeda.

Pada tahun 2003, tim ahli modern yang dipimpin oleh penyelidik forensik Italia Luciano Garafano memutuskan untuk melakukan otopsi digital mereka sendiri. Menggunakan perangkat lunak khusus untuk membuat rekonstruksi tiga dimensi mayat Caesar, mereka mengambil bukti kuno- termasuk otopsi asli dan menciptakan kembali keadaan pembunuhan. Tim ahli patologi modern, profiler polisi, dan sejarawan klasik kemudian berangkat untuk melihat apa yang dapat mereka simpulkan.

Menggunakan akun Antistius, cedera Caesar diterapkan pada rekonstruksi 3 D. Ini dilakukan, Garafano menggunakan pengalamannya tentang kekerasan massa untuk menciptakan kembali serangan itu.

Berbagai skenario diterapkan dan Garafano menyimpulkan bahwa tidak mungkin bagi 23 pria untuk 'menempelkan' pisau mereka&rdquo. Faktanya, kemungkinan besar antara 5-10 pria terlibat secara aktif dalam pembunuhan itu, dengan sisanya membentuk layar di sekitar mereka untuk mencegah senator lain ikut campur.

Kematian Julius Caesar. Google gambar


Isi

Gaius Julius Caesar lahir dalam keluarga bangsawan, the jendral Julia, yang mengklaim keturunan dari Julus, putra pangeran Trojan legendaris Aeneas, yang diduga putra dewi Venus. [6] The Julii berasal dari Alban, disebutkan sebagai salah satu rumah Alban terkemuka, yang menetap di Roma sekitar pertengahan abad ke-7 SM, setelah kehancuran Alba Longa. Mereka diberikan status ningrat, bersama dengan keluarga bangsawan Alban lainnya. [7] The Julii juga ada pada periode awal di Bovillae, dibuktikan dengan sebuah prasasti yang sangat kuno di altar di teater kota itu, yang berbicara tentang persembahan korban menurut lege Albana, atau ritus Alban. [8] [9] [10] julukan "Caesar" berasal, menurut Pliny the Elder, dengan nenek moyang yang lahir melalui operasi caesar (dari kata kerja Latin "untuk memotong", caedere, caes-). [11] Historia Augusta menyarankan tiga penjelasan alternatif: bahwa Caesar pertama memiliki rambut kepala yang tebal ("caesaries") bahwa dia memiliki mata abu-abu cerah ("oculis caesiis") atau bahwa dia membunuh seekor gajah selama Perang Punisia ("caesai" dalam bahasa Moor) dalam pertempuran. [12] Caesar mengeluarkan koin yang menampilkan gambar gajah, menunjukkan bahwa dia lebih menyukai interpretasi namanya yang terakhir.

Terlepas dari silsilah kuno mereka, Julii Caesares tidak terlalu berpengaruh secara politik, meskipun mereka telah menikmati kebangkitan kembali kekayaan politik mereka di awal abad ke-1 SM. [13] Ayah Caesar, juga disebut Gaius Julius Caesar, memerintah provinsi Asia, [14] dan saudara perempuannya Julia, bibi Caesar, menikah dengan Gaius Marius, salah satu tokoh paling terkemuka di Republik. [15] Ibunya, Aurelia Cotta, berasal dari keluarga berpengaruh. Sedikit yang tercatat tentang masa kecil Caesar. [16]

Pada tahun 85 SM, ayah Caesar meninggal secara tiba-tiba, [17] menjadikan Caesar sebagai kepala keluarga pada usia 16 tahun. Kelahirannya bertepatan dengan perang saudara antara pamannya Gaius Marius dan saingannya Lucius Cornelius Sulla. Kedua belah pihak melakukan pembersihan berdarah lawan politik mereka setiap kali mereka berkuasa. Marius dan sekutunya Lucius Cornelius Cinna menguasai kota ketika Caesar dinominasikan sebagai yang baru dialis nyala api (imam besar Yupiter), [18] dan ia menikah dengan putri Cinna, Cornelia. [19] [20]

Namun, setelah kemenangan terakhir Sulla, koneksi Caesar ke rezim lama membuatnya menjadi target rezim baru. Dia dilucuti dari warisannya, mas kawin istrinya, dan imamatnya, tetapi dia menolak untuk menceraikan Cornelia dan malah dipaksa untuk bersembunyi. [21] Ancaman terhadapnya diangkat oleh intervensi dari keluarga ibunya, yang termasuk pendukung Sulla, dan Perawan Vestal. Sulla menyerah dengan enggan dan dikatakan telah menyatakan bahwa dia melihat banyak Marius di Caesar. [16] Hilangnya imamatnya telah memungkinkan dia untuk mengejar karir militer, sebagai imam besar Jupiter tidak diizinkan untuk menyentuh kuda, tidur tiga malam di luar tempat tidurnya sendiri atau satu malam di luar Roma, atau melihat pasukan. [22]

Caesar merasa bahwa akan jauh lebih aman jauh dari Sulla jika diktator berubah pikiran, jadi dia meninggalkan Roma dan bergabung dengan tentara, melayani di bawah Marcus Minucius Thermus di Asia dan Servilius Isauricus di Kilikia. Dia melayani dengan perbedaan, memenangkan Civic Crown untuk perannya dalam Pengepungan Mytilene. Dia pergi misi ke Bitinia untuk mendapatkan bantuan armada Raja Nicomedes, tetapi dia menghabiskan begitu lama di istana Nicomedes sehingga muncul rumor perselingkuhan dengan raja, yang ditolak keras oleh Caesar selama sisa hidupnya. [23]

Mendengar kematian Sulla pada tahun 78 SM, Caesar merasa cukup aman untuk kembali ke Roma. Dia kekurangan sarana karena warisannya disita, tetapi dia memperoleh sebuah rumah sederhana di Subura, lingkungan kelas bawah di Roma. [24] Dia beralih ke advokasi hukum dan menjadi terkenal karena pidatonya yang luar biasa disertai dengan gerak tubuh yang berapi-api dan suara bernada tinggi, dan penuntutan kejam terhadap mantan gubernur yang terkenal karena pemerasan dan korupsi.

Dalam perjalanan melintasi Laut Aegea, [25] Caesar diculik oleh bajak laut dan ditawan. [26] [27] Dia mempertahankan sikap superioritas selama penawanannya. Para perompak menuntut tebusan 20 talenta perak, tetapi dia bersikeras bahwa mereka meminta 50. [28] [29] Setelah uang tebusan dibayarkan, Caesar mengangkat armada, mengejar dan menangkap para perompak, sebelum memenjarakan mereka. Dia menyuruh mereka disalibkan atas otoritasnya sendiri, seperti yang dia janjikan saat ditawan [30] —janji yang dianggap bajak laut sebagai lelucon. Sebagai tanda keringanan hukuman, dia terlebih dahulu memotong leher mereka. Dia segera dipanggil kembali ke dalam aksi militer di Asia, membentuk sekelompok pembantu untuk mengusir serangan dari timur. [31]

Sekembalinya ke Roma, ia terpilih sebagai tribun militer, langkah pertama dalam karir politik. Dia terpilih quaestor pada tahun 69 SM, [32] dan selama tahun itu ia menyampaikan orasi pemakaman untuk bibinya Julia, termasuk gambar suaminya Marius, yang tidak terlihat sejak zaman Sulla, dalam prosesi pemakaman. Istrinya Cornelia juga meninggal tahun itu. [33] Caesar pergi untuk melayani quaestorship di Hispania setelah pemakaman istrinya, pada musim semi atau awal musim panas 69 SM. [34] Saat berada di sana, dia dikatakan telah bertemu dengan patung Aleksander Agung, dan menyadari dengan ketidakpuasan bahwa dia sekarang berada pada usia ketika Aleksander menguasai dunia, sementara pencapaiannya relatif sedikit. Sekembalinya pada tahun 67 SM, [35] ia menikahi Pompeia, cucu perempuan Sulla, yang kemudian ia ceraikan pada tahun 61 SM setelah keterlibatannya dalam skandal Bona Dea. [36] Pada 65 SM, ia terpilih curule aedile, dan mengadakan permainan mewah yang membuatnya mendapatkan perhatian lebih lanjut dan dukungan populer. [37]

Pada 63 SM, ia mencalonkan diri untuk pemilihan jabatan pontifex maximus, imam kepala agama negara Romawi. Dia melawan dua senator yang kuat. Tuduhan suap dilakukan oleh semua pihak. Caesar menang dengan nyaman, terlepas dari pengalaman dan kedudukan lawan-lawannya yang lebih besar. [38] Cicero adalah konsul tahun itu, dan dia mengungkap konspirasi Catiline untuk merebut kendali republik beberapa senator menuduh Caesar terlibat dalam plot. [39]

Setelah menjabat sebagai praetor pada 62 SM, Caesar diangkat untuk memerintah Hispania Tersembunyi (bagian barat Semenanjung Iberia) sebagai pemilik, [40] [41] [42] meskipun beberapa sumber menunjukkan bahwa ia memegang kekuasaan prokonsuler. [43] [44] Dia masih terlilit hutang dan harus memuaskan kreditornya sebelum dia bisa pergi. Dia menoleh ke Marcus Licinius Crassus, orang terkaya di Roma. Crassus membayar sebagian hutang Caesar dan bertindak sebagai penjamin untuk yang lain, sebagai imbalan atas dukungan politik dalam penentangannya terhadap kepentingan Pompey. Meski begitu, untuk menghindari menjadi warga negara dan dengan demikian terbuka untuk penuntutan atas hutangnya, Caesar pergi ke provinsinya sebelum kepemimpinannya berakhir. Di Hispania, dia menaklukkan dua suku lokal dan dipuji sebagai imperator oleh pasukannya dia mereformasi undang-undang tentang hutang, dan menyelesaikan jabatan gubernurnya dengan sangat terhormat. [45]

Caesar diakui imperator pada tahun 60 SM (dan kemudian pada tahun 45 SM). Di Republik Romawi, ini adalah gelar kehormatan yang dipegang oleh komandan militer tertentu. Setelah kemenangan yang sangat besar, pasukan tentara di lapangan akan mengumumkan komandan mereka imperator, sebuah aklamasi yang diperlukan bagi seorang jenderal untuk mendaftar ke Senat untuk sebuah kemenangan. Namun, Caesar juga ingin menjadi konsul, hakim paling senior di republik ini. Jika dia ingin merayakan kemenangan, dia harus tetap menjadi tentara dan tinggal di luar kota sampai upacara, tetapi untuk mencalonkan diri dia harus meletakkan komandonya dan memasuki Roma sebagai warga negara biasa. Dia tidak bisa melakukan keduanya dalam waktu yang tersedia. Dia meminta izin kepada Senat untuk berdiri dalam ketidakhadiran, tetapi Cato memblokir proposal tersebut. Dihadapkan dengan pilihan antara kemenangan dan konsul, Caesar memilih konsul. [46]

Pada 60 SM, Caesar mencari pemilihan sebagai konsul untuk 59 SM, bersama dengan dua kandidat lainnya. Pemilihan itu kotor—bahkan Cato, dengan reputasinya yang tidak dapat dikorupsi, dikatakan telah melakukan penyuapan untuk mendukung salah satu lawan Caesar. Caesar menang, bersama dengan Marcus Bibulus yang konservatif. [47]

Caesar sudah dalam utang politik Marcus Licinius Crassus, tetapi dia juga membuat tawaran ke Pompey. Pompey dan Crassus telah berselisih selama satu dekade, jadi Caesar mencoba mendamaikan mereka. Ketiganya memiliki cukup uang dan pengaruh politik untuk mengendalikan bisnis publik. Aliansi informal ini, yang dikenal sebagai Triumvirat Pertama ("aturan tiga orang"), diperkuat dengan pernikahan Pompey dengan putri Caesar Julia. [48] ​​Caesar juga menikah lagi, kali ini Calpurnia, yang merupakan putri dari senator kuat lainnya. [49]

Caesar mengusulkan undang-undang untuk mendistribusikan kembali tanah publik kepada orang miskin — dengan kekuatan senjata, jika perlu — proposal yang didukung oleh Pompey dan Crassus, membuat tiga serangkai publik. Pompey memenuhi kota dengan tentara, sebuah langkah yang mengintimidasi lawan tiga serangkai itu. Bibulus berusaha untuk menyatakan pertanda buruk dan dengan demikian membatalkan hukum baru, tetapi ia diusir dari forum oleh pendukung bersenjata Caesar. Wajah para lictornya patah, dua hakim tinggi yang menemaninya terluka, dan seember kotoran dilemparkan ke atasnya. Karena takut akan hidupnya, dia pensiun ke rumahnya selama sisa tahun itu, sesekali mengeluarkan proklamasi pertanda buruk. Upaya ini terbukti tidak efektif dalam menghalangi undang-undang Caesar. Para satiris Romawi kemudian menyebut tahun itu sebagai "konsul Julius dan Caesar." [50]

Ketika Caesar pertama kali terpilih, aristokrasi mencoba membatasi kekuasaan masa depannya dengan membagikan hutan dan padang rumput Italia, bukan gubernur provinsi, sebagai tugas komando militernya setelah tahun jabatannya berakhir. [51] Dengan bantuan sekutu politik, Caesar mengamankan bagian dari lex Vatikan, memberinya jabatan gubernur atas Cisalpine Gaul (Italia utara) dan Illyricum (Eropa tenggara). [52] Atas dorongan Pompey dan ayah mertuanya Piso, Transalpine Gaul (Prancis selatan) ditambahkan kemudian setelah kematian gubernurnya, memberinya komando empat legiun. [52] Masa jabatan gubernurnya, dan dengan demikian kekebalannya dari penuntutan, ditetapkan lima tahun, bukan yang biasa. [53] [54] Ketika konsulnya berakhir, Caesar nyaris menghindari penuntutan atas ketidakberesan tahun jabatannya, dan dengan cepat pergi ke provinsinya. [55]

Penaklukan Galia

Caesar masih terlilit hutang, tetapi ada uang yang harus diperoleh sebagai gubernur, baik dengan pemerasan [56] atau dengan petualangan militer. Caesar memiliki empat legiun di bawah komandonya, dua provinsinya berbatasan dengan wilayah yang belum ditaklukkan, dan bagian dari Galia diketahui tidak stabil. Beberapa sekutu Galia Roma telah dikalahkan oleh saingan mereka di Pertempuran Magetobriga, dengan bantuan kontingen suku Jermanik. Bangsa Romawi takut suku-suku ini bersiap untuk bermigrasi ke selatan, lebih dekat ke Italia, dan bahwa mereka memiliki niat suka berperang. Caesar mengangkat dua legiun baru dan mengalahkan suku-suku ini. [57]

Menanggapi kegiatan Caesar sebelumnya, suku-suku di timur laut mulai mempersenjatai diri. Caesar memperlakukan ini sebagai langkah agresif dan, setelah keterlibatan yang tidak meyakinkan melawan suku-suku yang bersatu, dia menaklukkan suku-suku itu sedikit demi sedikit. Sementara itu, salah satu legiunnya memulai penaklukan suku-suku di ujung utara, tepat di seberang Inggris. [58] Selama musim semi 56 SM, Triumvirs mengadakan konferensi, karena Roma berada dalam kekacauan dan aliansi politik Caesar akan dibatalkan. Konferensi Lucca memperbaharui Triumvirat Pertama dan memperpanjang jabatan gubernur Caesar selama lima tahun. [59] Penaklukan utara segera selesai, sementara beberapa kantong perlawanan tetap ada. [60] Caesar sekarang memiliki basis yang aman untuk melancarkan invasi ke Inggris.

Pada tahun 55 SM, Caesar menangkis serangan ke Galia oleh dua suku Jermanik, dan menindaklanjutinya dengan membangun jembatan melintasi Rhine dan menunjukkan kekuatan di wilayah Jermanik, sebelum kembali dan membongkar jembatan tersebut. Akhir musim panas itu, setelah menaklukkan dua suku lain, dia menyeberang ke Inggris, mengklaim bahwa orang Inggris telah membantu salah satu musuhnya tahun sebelumnya, mungkin Veneti dari Brittany. [61] Pengetahuannya tentang Inggris sangat buruk, dan meskipun ia mendapatkan tempat berpijak di pantai, ia tidak dapat maju lebih jauh. Dia menyerbu keluar dari tempat berpijaknya dan menghancurkan beberapa desa, lalu kembali ke Galia untuk musim dingin. [62] Dia kembali pada tahun berikutnya, lebih siap dan dengan kekuatan yang lebih besar, dan mencapai lebih banyak. Dia maju ke pedalaman, dan membentuk beberapa aliansi, tetapi panen yang buruk menyebabkan pemberontakan meluas di Gaul, memaksa Caesar untuk meninggalkan Inggris untuk terakhir kalinya. [63]

Ketika Caesar berada di Inggris, putrinya Julia, istri Pompey, meninggal saat melahirkan. Caesar mencoba untuk mengamankan kembali dukungan Pompey dengan menawarkan keponakannya untuk menikah, tetapi Pompey menolak. Pada 53 SM Crassus terbunuh memimpin invasi yang gagal ke timur. Roma berada di ambang perang saudara. Pompey diangkat konsul tunggal sebagai tindakan darurat, dan menikahi putri lawan politik Caesar. Triumvirat sudah mati. [64]

Meskipun suku Galia sama kuatnya dengan Romawi secara militer, perpecahan internal di antara Galia menjamin kemenangan mudah bagi Caesar. Upaya Vercingetorix pada tahun 52 SM untuk menyatukan mereka melawan invasi Romawi datang terlambat. [65] [66] Dia terbukti sebagai komandan yang cerdik, mengalahkan Caesar di Pertempuran Gergovia, tetapi pengepungan Caesar yang rumit di Pertempuran Alesia akhirnya memaksanya menyerah. [67] Meskipun pecahnya perang yang tersebar pada tahun berikutnya, [68] Galia secara efektif ditaklukkan. Plutarch mengklaim bahwa selama Perang Galia tentara telah berperang melawan tiga juta orang (di antaranya satu juta meninggal, dan satu juta lainnya diperbudak), menaklukkan 300 suku, dan menghancurkan 800 kota. [69] Jumlah korban diperdebatkan oleh sejarawan modern. [70]

Perang sipil

Pada tahun 50 SM, Senat (dipimpin oleh Pompey) memerintahkan Caesar untuk membubarkan pasukannya dan kembali ke Roma karena masa jabatannya sebagai gubernur telah habis. [71] Caesar mengira dia akan diadili jika dia memasuki Roma tanpa kekebalan yang dinikmati oleh seorang hakim. Pompey menuduh Caesar pembangkangan dan pengkhianatan. Pada 10 Januari 49 SM, Caesar menyeberangi sungai Rubicon (batas perbatasan Italia) dengan hanya satu legiun, Legio XIII Gemina, dan memicu perang saudara. Setelah melintasi Rubicon, Caesar, menurut Plutarch dan Suetonius, diduga telah mengutip dramawan Athena Menander, dalam bahasa Yunani, "the die is cast". [72] Erasmus, bagaimanapun, mencatat bahwa terjemahan Latin yang lebih akurat dari suasana imperatif Yunani adalah "alea iacta esto", membiarkan mati akan dilemparkan. [73] Pompey dan banyak anggota Senat melarikan diri ke selatan, memiliki sedikit kepercayaan pada pasukan Pompey yang baru diangkat. Pompey, meskipun jauh melebihi jumlah Caesar, yang hanya membawa Legiun Ketigabelas bersamanya, tidak berniat untuk bertarung. Caesar mengejar Pompey, berharap untuk menangkap Pompey sebelum pasukannya bisa melarikan diri. [74]

Pompey berhasil melarikan diri sebelum Caesar bisa menangkapnya. Menuju Hispania, Caesar meninggalkan Italia di bawah kendali Mark Antony. Setelah perjalanan rute 27 hari yang mencengangkan, Caesar mengalahkan letnan Pompey, lalu kembali ke timur, untuk menantang Pompey di Illyria, di mana, pada 10 Juli 48 SM dalam pertempuran Dyrrhachium, Caesar nyaris tidak menghindari kekalahan bencana. Dalam pertempuran yang sangat singkat di akhir tahun itu, ia secara meyakinkan mengalahkan Pompey di Pharsalus, di Yunani pada 9 Agustus 48 SM. [75]

Di Roma, Caesar diangkat diktator, [78] dengan Mark Antony sebagai Master of the Horse (kedua dalam komando) Caesar memimpin pemilihannya sendiri untuk konsul kedua dan kemudian, setelah 11 hari, mengundurkan diri dari kediktatoran ini. [78] [79] Caesar kemudian mengejar Pompey ke Mesir, tiba segera setelah pembunuhan sang jenderal. Di sana, Caesar disajikan dengan kepala terpenggal Pompey dan cincin segel, menerima ini dengan air mata. [80] Dia kemudian membunuh pembunuh Pompey. [81]

Caesar kemudian terlibat dalam perang saudara Mesir antara firaun anak dan saudara perempuannya, istri, dan ratu co-bupati, Cleopatra. Mungkin karena peran firaun dalam pembunuhan Pompey, Caesar memihak Cleopatra. Dia bertahan dari Pengepungan Alexandria dan kemudian dia mengalahkan pasukan firaun pada Pertempuran Sungai Nil pada tahun 47 SM dan mengangkat Cleopatra sebagai penguasa. Caesar dan Cleopatra merayakan kemenangan mereka dengan prosesi kemenangan di Sungai Nil pada musim semi tahun 47 SM. Tongkang kerajaan disertai dengan 400 kapal tambahan, dan Caesar diperkenalkan dengan gaya hidup mewah para firaun Mesir. [82]

Caesar dan Cleopatra tidak menikah. Caesar melanjutkan hubungannya dengan Cleopatra sepanjang pernikahan terakhirnya—di mata Romawi, ini bukan perzinahan—dan mungkin menjadi ayah dari seorang putra bernama Caesarion. Cleopatra mengunjungi Roma lebih dari satu kali, tinggal di vila Caesar di luar Roma di seberang Tiber. [82]

Akhir tahun 48 SM, Caesar kembali diangkat diktator, dengan masa jabatan satu tahun. [79] Setelah menghabiskan bulan-bulan pertama tahun 47 SM di Mesir, Caesar pergi ke Timur Tengah, di mana ia memusnahkan raja Pontus, kemenangannya begitu cepat dan lengkap sehingga ia mengejek kemenangan Pompey sebelumnya atas musuh-musuh yang begitu miskin. [83] Dalam perjalanannya ke Pontus, Caesar mengunjungi Tarsus dari 27 hingga 29 Mei 47 SM (25-27 Mei greg.), di mana ia mendapat dukungan antusias, tetapi di mana, menurut Cicero, Cassius berencana untuk membunuhnya pada saat ini. . [84] [85] [86] Dari sana, ia pergi ke Afrika untuk berurusan dengan sisa-sisa pendukung senator Pompey. Ia dikalahkan oleh Titus Labienus di Ruspina pada 4 Januari 46 SM tetapi pulih untuk mendapatkan kemenangan signifikan di Thapsus pada 6 April 46 SM atas Cato, yang kemudian bunuh diri. [87]

Setelah kemenangan ini, ia diangkat diktator selama 10 tahun. [88] Putra Pompey melarikan diri ke Hispania Caesar mengejar dan mengalahkan sisa-sisa oposisi terakhir dalam Pertempuran Munda pada bulan Maret 45 SM. [89] Selama waktu ini, Caesar terpilih untuk masa jabatan ketiga dan keempatnya sebagai konsul pada 46 SM dan 45 SM (terakhir kali ini tanpa rekan kerja).

Saat dia masih berkampanye di Hispania, Senat mulai memberikan penghargaan kepada Caesar. Caesar tidak melarang musuhnya, malah memaafkan hampir semua, dan tidak ada oposisi publik yang serius terhadapnya. Permainan besar dan perayaan diadakan pada bulan April untuk menghormati kemenangan Caesar di Munda. Plutarch menulis bahwa banyak orang Romawi yang menganggap kemenangan yang diadakan setelah kemenangan Caesar tidak enak, karena mereka yang kalah dalam perang saudara bukanlah orang asing, melainkan sesama orang Romawi. [90] Sekembalinya Caesar ke Italia pada September 45 SM, ia mengajukan wasiatnya, menamai cucunya Gaius Octavius ​​(Oktavianus, kemudian dikenal sebagai Augustus Caesar) sebagai pewaris utamanya, meninggalkan tanah dan propertinya yang luas termasuk namanya. Caesar juga menulis bahwa jika Oktavianus meninggal sebelum Caesar meninggal, Decimus Junius Brutus Albinus akan menjadi pewaris berikutnya berturut-turut. [91] Dalam wasiatnya, ia juga meninggalkan hadiah besar untuk warga Roma.

Antara penyeberangan Rubicon pada 49 SM, dan pembunuhannya pada 44 SM, Caesar membentuk konstitusi baru, yang dimaksudkan untuk mencapai tiga tujuan terpisah. [92] Pertama, dia ingin menekan semua perlawanan bersenjata di provinsi-provinsi, dan dengan demikian mengembalikan ketertiban ke Republik. Kedua, dia ingin menciptakan pemerintahan pusat yang kuat di Roma. Akhirnya, dia ingin merajut semua provinsi menjadi satu kesatuan yang kohesif. [92]

Gol pertama tercapai saat Caesar mengalahkan Pompey dan pendukungnya. [92] Untuk mencapai dua tujuan lainnya, dia perlu memastikan bahwa kendalinya atas pemerintah tidak terbantahkan, [93] jadi dia mengambil alih kekuasaan ini dengan meningkatkan otoritasnya sendiri, dan dengan mengurangi otoritas institusi politik Roma lainnya. Akhirnya, dia memberlakukan serangkaian reformasi yang dimaksudkan untuk mengatasi beberapa masalah yang telah lama diabaikan, yang paling penting adalah reformasi kalendernya. [94]

Kediktatoran

Ketika Caesar kembali ke Roma, Senat memberinya kemenangan atas kemenangannya, seolah-olah atas Gaul, Mesir, Pharnaces, dan Juba, bukan atas lawan-lawan Romawinya. [ kutipan diperlukan ] Ketika Arsinoe IV, mantan ratu Mesir, diarak dengan rantai, para penonton mengagumi sikapnya yang bermartabat dan tergerak oleh rasa kasihan. [95] Permainan kemenangan diadakan, dengan perburuan binatang yang melibatkan 400 singa, dan kontes gladiator. Sebuah pertempuran laut diadakan di cekungan banjir di Lapangan Mars. [96] Di Circus Maximus, dua tentara tawanan perang, — masing-masing terdiri dari 2.000 orang, 200 kuda, dan 20 gajah — bertempur sampai mati. Sekali lagi, beberapa pengamat mengeluh, kali ini pada pemborosan boros Caesar. Kerusuhan pecah, dan hanya berhenti ketika Caesar memiliki dua perusuh yang dikorbankan oleh para imam di Lapangan Mars. [96]

Setelah kemenangan, Caesar berangkat untuk meloloskan agenda legislatif yang ambisius. [96] Dia memerintahkan sensus dilakukan, yang memaksa pengurangan sedekah gandum, dan memutuskan bahwa juri hanya bisa datang dari Senat atau jajaran berkuda. Dia mengesahkan undang-undang tentang makanan mewah yang membatasi pembelian barang mewah tertentu. Setelah ini, ia mengeluarkan undang-undang yang memberi penghargaan kepada keluarga karena memiliki banyak anak, untuk mempercepat repopulasi Italia. Kemudian, dia melarang serikat profesional, kecuali yang didirikan pada yayasan kuno, karena banyak di antaranya adalah klub politik subversif. Dia kemudian mengesahkan undang-undang batas masa jabatan yang berlaku untuk gubernur. Dia mengesahkan undang-undang restrukturisasi utang, yang pada akhirnya menghilangkan sekitar seperempat dari semua utang yang terutang. [96]

Forum Caesar, dengan Kuil Venus Genetrix, kemudian dibangun, di antara banyak pekerjaan umum lainnya. [97] Caesar juga secara ketat mengatur pembelian gandum yang disubsidi negara dan mengurangi jumlah penerima menjadi jumlah tetap, yang semuanya dimasukkan ke dalam daftar khusus. [98] Dari 47 hingga 44 SM, ia membuat rencana untuk pembagian tanah kepada sekitar 15.000 veterannya. [99]

Namun, perubahan yang paling penting adalah reformasi kalendernya. Kalender Romawi pada saat itu diatur oleh pergerakan bulan. Dengan menggantinya dengan kalender Mesir, berdasarkan matahari, para petani Romawi dapat menggunakannya sebagai dasar penanaman musiman yang konsisten dari tahun ke tahun. Dia menetapkan panjang tahun menjadi 365,25 hari dengan menambahkan hari kabisat/kabisat pada akhir Februari setiap tahun keempat. [94]

Untuk menyelaraskan kalender dengan musim, ia memutuskan bahwa tiga bulan tambahan dimasukkan ke dalam 46 SM (bulan kabisat biasa pada akhir Februari, dan dua bulan tambahan setelah November). Dengan demikian, kalender Julian dibuka pada 1 Januari 45 SM. [94] [96] Kalender ini hampir identik dengan kalender Barat saat ini.

Sesaat sebelum pembunuhannya, ia melewati beberapa reformasi lagi. [96] Dia menunjuk pejabat untuk melaksanakan reformasi tanah dan memerintahkan pembangunan kembali Kartago dan Korintus. Dia juga memperluas hak Latin di seluruh dunia Romawi, dan kemudian menghapus sistem pajak dan kembali ke versi sebelumnya yang memungkinkan kota untuk mengumpulkan upeti sesuka mereka, daripada membutuhkan perantara Romawi. Pembunuhannya mencegah skema lebih lanjut dan lebih besar, yang mencakup pembangunan kuil Mars yang belum pernah terjadi sebelumnya, teater besar, dan perpustakaan seukuran Perpustakaan Alexandria. [96]

Dia juga ingin mengubah Ostia menjadi pelabuhan utama, dan memotong kanal melalui Tanah Genting Korintus. Secara militer, dia ingin menaklukkan Dacia dan Parthia, dan membalas kekalahan di Carrhae. Karena itu, ia melembagakan mobilisasi besar-besaran. Sesaat sebelum pembunuhannya, Senat menamainya sensor seumur hidup dan Bapak Tanah Air, dan bulan Quintilis diganti namanya menjadi Juli untuk menghormatinya. [96]

Dia diberikan penghargaan lebih lanjut, yang kemudian digunakan untuk membenarkan pembunuhannya sebagai calon raja ilahi: koin dikeluarkan dengan gambarnya dan patungnya ditempatkan di sebelah patung raja. Dia diberikan kursi emas di Senat, diizinkan mengenakan gaun kemenangan kapan pun dia mau, dan ditawari bentuk kultus semi-resmi atau populer, dengan Mark Antony sebagai imam tingginya. [96]

Reformasi politik

Sejarah pengangkatan politik Caesar rumit dan tidak pasti. Caesar memegang kediktatoran dan tribunat, tetapi berganti-ganti antara konsul dan prokonsul. [93] Kekuasaannya di dalam negara bagian tampaknya bertumpu pada hakim-hakim ini. [93] Ia pertama kali diangkat diktator pada 49 SM, kemungkinan untuk memimpin pemilihan umum, tetapi mengundurkan diri dari kediktatorannya dalam waktu 11 hari. Pada tahun 48 SM, ia diangkat kembali sebagai diktator, hanya kali ini untuk jangka waktu yang tidak ditentukan, dan pada tahun 46 SM, ia diangkat sebagai diktator selama 10 tahun. [100]

Pada 48 SM, Caesar diberi kekuasaan tribunician permanen, [101] [ verifikasi gagal ] yang membuat orangnya suci dan memungkinkan dia untuk memveto Senat, [101] meskipun setidaknya pada satu kesempatan, tribun berusaha untuk menghalangi dia. Tribun yang melanggar dalam kasus ini dibawa ke hadapan Senat dan dicopot dari jabatannya. [101] Ini bukan pertama kalinya Caesar melanggar kesucian tribun. Setelah dia pertama kali berbaris di Roma pada tahun 49 SM, dia secara paksa membuka perbendaharaan, meskipun sebuah tribun memiliki segel yang ditempatkan di atasnya. Setelah pemakzulan dua tribun obstruktif, Caesar, mungkin tidak mengejutkan, tidak menghadapi tentangan lebih lanjut dari anggota lain dari Tribunician College. [101]

Ketika Caesar kembali ke Roma pada tahun 47 SM, jajaran Senat telah sangat terkuras, jadi dia menggunakan kekuatan sensornya untuk menunjuk banyak senator baru, yang akhirnya meningkatkan keanggotaan Senat menjadi 900. [102] Semua penunjukan adalah miliknya sendiri partisan, yang merampas prestise aristokrasi senator, dan membuat Senat semakin tunduk padanya. [103] Untuk meminimalkan risiko bahwa jenderal lain mungkin mencoba menantangnya, [100] Caesar mengesahkan undang-undang yang membatasi masa jabatan gubernur. [100]

Pada 46 SM, Caesar memberi dirinya gelar "Prefek Morals", yang merupakan jabatan yang baru hanya dalam nama, karena kekuatannya identik dengan yang dimiliki Kaisar. sensor. [101] Dengan demikian, dia bisa memegang kekuasaan sensor, sementara secara teknis tidak menundukkan dirinya pada pemeriksaan yang sama yang menjadi subjek sensor biasa, dan dia menggunakan kekuatan ini untuk mengisi Senat dengan partisannya sendiri. Dia juga menetapkan preseden, yang diikuti oleh penerus kekaisarannya, yang mengharuskan Senat untuk menganugerahkan berbagai gelar dan penghargaan kepadanya. Dia, misalnya, diberi gelar "Bapak Tanah Air" dan "imperator". [100]

Koin memiliki kemiripan dengannya, dan dia diberi hak untuk berbicara terlebih dahulu selama pertemuan Senat. [100] Caesar kemudian meningkatkan jumlah hakim yang dipilih setiap tahun, yang menciptakan banyak hakim berpengalaman, dan memungkinkan Caesar untuk memberi penghargaan kepada para pendukungnya. [102]

Caesar bahkan mengambil langkah-langkah untuk mengubah Italia menjadi sebuah provinsi, dan untuk menghubungkan lebih erat provinsi-provinsi kekaisaran lainnya menjadi satu unit yang kohesif. Proses menggabungkan seluruh Kekaisaran Romawi menjadi satu kesatuan, daripada mempertahankannya sebagai jaringan kerajaan yang tidak setara, pada akhirnya akan diselesaikan oleh penerus Caesar, Kaisar Augustus.

Pada Oktober 45 SM, Caesar mengundurkan diri dari posisinya sebagai konsul tunggal, dan memfasilitasi pemilihan dua penerus untuk sisa tahun, yang secara teoritis memulihkan konsul biasa, karena konstitusi tidak mengakui satu konsul tanpa rekan. [102] Pada bulan Februari 44 SM, satu bulan sebelum pembunuhannya, ia diangkat menjadi diktator untuk selama-lamanya. Di bawah Caesar, sejumlah besar wewenang diberikan kepada para letnannya, [100] terutama karena Caesar sering keluar dari Italia. [100]

Menjelang akhir hidupnya, Caesar mulai mempersiapkan perang melawan Kekaisaran Parthia. Karena ketidakhadirannya dari Roma mungkin membatasi kemampuannya untuk mengangkat konsulnya sendiri, ia mengeluarkan undang-undang yang memungkinkannya untuk menunjuk semua hakim, dan semua konsul dan tribun. [102] Ini, pada dasarnya, mengubah hakim dari wakil rakyat menjadi wakil diktator. [102]

Pembunuhan

Pada Ides of March (15 Maret lihat kalender Romawi) tahun 44 SM, Caesar dijadwalkan hadir pada sesi Senat. Beberapa Senator telah bersekongkol untuk membunuh Caesar. Mark Antony, yang samar-samar mengetahui plot malam sebelumnya dari ketakutan pembebas bernama Servilius Casca, dan karena takut akan yang terburuk, pergi untuk menghadang Caesar. Para komplotan, bagaimanapun, telah mengantisipasi hal ini dan, takut bahwa Antony akan datang membantu Caesar, telah mengatur agar Trebonius mencegatnya tepat ketika dia mendekati serambi Teater Pompey, di mana sesi itu akan diadakan, dan menahannya di luar. (Plutarch, bagaimanapun, memberikan tindakan menunda Antony ini kepada Brutus Albinus). Mendengar keributan dari ruang Senat, Antony melarikan diri. [104]

Menurut Plutarch, saat Caesar tiba di Senat, Tillius Cimber mengajukan petisi untuk memanggil kembali saudaranya yang diasingkan. [105] Para konspirator lain berkerumun untuk menawarkan dukungan. Baik Plutarch dan Suetonius mengatakan bahwa Caesar melambaikan tangannya, tetapi Cimber meraih bahunya dan menurunkan jubah Caesar. Caesar kemudian berteriak kepada Cimber, "Wah, ini kekerasan!" ("Ista quidem vis est!"). [106]

Casca secara bersamaan mengeluarkan belatinya dan membuat tusukan sekilas ke leher sang diktator. Caesar berbalik dengan cepat dan menangkap lengan Casca. Menurut Plutarch, dia berkata dalam bahasa Latin, "Casca, kamu penjahat, apa yang kamu lakukan?" [107] Casca, ketakutan, berteriak, "Tolong, saudara!" dalam bahasa Yunani (" , ", "adelphe, boethei"). Dalam beberapa saat, seluruh kelompok, termasuk Brutus, menyerang diktator. Caesar berusaha melarikan diri, tetapi, dibutakan oleh darah, dia tersandung dan jatuh, orang-orang terus menikamnya saat dia terbaring tak berdaya di tangga bawah. the portico. According to Eutropius, around 60 men participated in the assassination. He was stabbed 23 times. [108]

According to Suetonius, a physician later established that only one wound, the second one to his chest, had been lethal. [109] The dictator's last words are not known with certainty, and are a contested subject among scholars and historians alike. Suetonius reports that others have said Caesar's last words were the Greek phrase " καὶ σύ, τέκνον " [110] (transliterated as "Kai sy, teknon?": "You too, child?" in English). However, Suetonius' own opinion was that Caesar said nothing. [111]

Plutarch also reports that Caesar said nothing, pulling his toga over his head when he saw Brutus among the conspirators. [112] The version best known in the English-speaking world is the Latin phrase "Et tu, Brute?" ("And you, Brutus?", commonly rendered as "You too, Brutus?") [113] [114] best known from Shakespeare's Julius Caesar, where it actually forms the first half of a macaronic line: "Et tu, Brute? Then fall, Caesar." This version was already popular when the play was written, as it appears in Richard Edes's Latin play Caesar Interfectus of 1582 and The True Tragedie of Richarde Duke of Yorke & etc. of 1595, Shakespeare's source work for other plays. [115]

According to Plutarch, after the assassination, Brutus stepped forward as if to say something to his fellow senators they, however, fled the building. [116] Brutus and his companions then marched to the Capitol while crying out to their beloved city: "People of Rome, we are once again free!" They were met with silence, as the citizens of Rome had locked themselves inside their houses as soon as the rumour of what had taken place had begun to spread. Caesar's dead body lay where it fell on the Senate floor for nearly three hours before other officials arrived to remove it.

Caesar's body was cremated. A crowd which had gathered at the cremation started a fire, which badly damaged the forum and neighbouring buildings. On the site of his cremation, the Temple of Caesar was erected a few years later (at the east side of the main square of the Roman Forum). Only its altar now remains. [117] A life-size wax statue of Caesar was later erected in the forum displaying the 23 stab wounds.

In the chaos following the death of Caesar, Mark Antony, Octavian (later Augustus Caesar), and others fought a series of five civil wars, which would culminate in the formation of the Roman Empire.

Aftermath of the assassination

The result unforeseen by the assassins was that Caesar's death precipitated the end of the Roman Republic. [118] The Roman middle and lower classes, with whom Caesar was immensely popular and had been since before Gaul, became enraged that a small group of aristocrats had killed their champion. Antony, who had been drifting apart from Caesar, capitalised on the grief of the Roman mob and threatened to unleash them on the Optimates, perhaps with the intent of taking control of Rome himself. To his surprise and chagrin, Caesar had named his grandnephew Gaius Octavius his sole heir (hence the name Octavian), bequeathing him the immensely potent Caesar name and making him one of the wealthiest citizens in the Republic. [119]

The crowd at the funeral boiled over, throwing dry branches, furniture, and even clothing on to Caesar's funeral pyre, causing the flames to spin out of control, seriously damaging the Forum. The mob then attacked the houses of Brutus and Cassius, where they were repelled only with considerable difficulty, ultimately providing the spark for the civil war, fulfilling at least in part Antony's threat against the aristocrats. [120] Antony did not foresee the ultimate outcome of the next series of civil wars, particularly with regard to Caesar's adopted heir. Octavian, aged only 18 when Caesar died, proved to have considerable political skills, and while Antony dealt with Decimus Brutus in the first round of the new civil wars, Octavian consolidated his tenuous position.

To combat Brutus and Cassius, who were massing an enormous army in Greece, Antony needed soldiers, the cash from Caesar's war chests, and the legitimacy that Caesar's name would provide for any action he took against them. With the passage of the lex Titia on 27 November 43 BC, [121] the Second Triumvirate was officially formed, composed of Antony, Octavian, and Caesar's loyal cavalry commander Lepidus. [122] It formally deified Caesar as Divus Iulius in 42 BC, and Caesar Octavian henceforth became Divi filius ("Son of the divine"). [123]

Because Caesar's clemency had resulted in his murder, the Second Triumvirate reinstated the practice of proscription, abandoned since Sulla. [124] It engaged in the legally sanctioned killing of a large number of its opponents to secure funding for its 45 legions in the second civil war against Brutus and Cassius. [125] Antony and Octavian defeated them at Philippi. [126]

Afterward, Mark Antony formed an alliance with Caesar's lover, Cleopatra, intending to use the fabulously wealthy Egypt as a base to dominate Rome. A third civil war broke out between Octavian on one hand and Antony and Cleopatra on the other. This final civil war, culminating in the latter's defeat at Actium in 31 BC and suicide in Egypt in 30 BC, resulted in the permanent ascendancy of Octavian, who became the first Roman emperor, under the name Caesar Augustus, a name conveying religious, rather than political, authority. [127]

Julius Caesar had been preparing to invade Parthia, the Caucasus, and Scythia, and then march back to Germania through Eastern Europe. These plans were thwarted by his assassination. [128] His successors did attempt the conquests of Parthia and Germania, but without lasting results.

Deification

Julius Caesar was the first historical Roman to be officially deified. He was posthumously granted the title Divus Iulius (the divine/deified Julius) by decree of the Roman Senate on 1 January 42 BC. The appearance of a comet during games in his honour was taken as confirmation of his divinity. Though his temple was not dedicated until after his death, he may have received divine honours during his lifetime: [129] and shortly before his assassination, Mark Antony had been appointed as his nyala api (priest). [130] Both Octavian and Mark Antony promoted the cult of Divus Iulius. After the death of Caesar, Octavian, as the adoptive son of Caesar, assumed the title of Divi Filius (Son of the Divine).

Health and physical appearance

Based on remarks by Plutarch, [131] Caesar is sometimes thought to have suffered from epilepsy. Modern scholarship is sharply divided on the subject, and some scholars believe that he was plagued by malaria, particularly during the Sullan proscriptions of the 80s. [132] Other scholars contend his epileptic seizures were due to a parasitic infection in the brain by a tapeworm. [133] [134]

Caesar had four documented episodes of what may have been complex partial seizures. He may additionally have had absence seizures in his youth. The earliest accounts of these seizures were made by the biographer Suetonius, who was born after Caesar died. The claim of epilepsy is countered among some medical historians by a claim of hypoglycemia, which can cause epileptoid seizures. [135] [136] [137]

In 2003, psychiatrist Harbour F. Hodder published what he termed as the "Caesar Complex" theory, arguing that Caesar was a sufferer of temporal lobe epilepsy and the debilitating symptoms of the condition were a factor in Caesar's conscious decision to forgo personal safety in the days leading up to his assassination. [138]

A line from Shakespeare has sometimes been taken to mean that he was deaf in one ear: "Come on my right hand, for this ear is deaf". [139] No classical source mentions hearing impairment in connection with Caesar. The playwright may have been making metaphorical use of a passage in Plutarch that does not refer to deafness at all, but rather to a gesture Alexander of Macedon customarily made. By covering his ear, Alexander indicated that he had turned his attention from an accusation in order to hear the defence. [140]

Francesco M. Galassi and Hutan Ashrafian suggest that Caesar's behavioral manifestations—headaches, vertigo, falls (possibly caused by muscle weakness due to nerve damage), sensory deficit, giddiness and insensibility—and syncopal episodes were the results of cerebrovascular episodes, not epilepsy. Pliny the Elder reports in his Sejarah Alam that Caesar's father and forefather died without apparent cause while putting on their shoes. These events can be more readily associated with cardiovascular complications from a stroke episode or lethal heart attack. Caesar possibly had a genetic predisposition for cardiovascular disease. [141]

Suetonius, writing more than a century after Caesar's death, describes Caesar as "tall of stature with a fair complexion, shapely limbs, a somewhat full face, and keen black eyes". [142]

Name and family

The name Gaius Julius Caesar

Using the Latin alphabet of the period, which lacked the letters J dan U, Caesar's name would be rendered GAIVS IVLIVS CAESAR the form CAIVS is also attested, using the older Roman representation of G oleh C. The standard abbreviation was C. IVLIVS CÆSAR, reflecting the older spelling. (The letterform Æ is a ligature of the letters A dan E, and is often used in Latin inscriptions to save space.)

In Classical Latin, it was pronounced [ˈɡaː.i.ʊs ˈjuːl.i.ʊs ˈkae̯sar]. In the days of the late Roman Republic, many historical writings were done in Greek, a language most educated Romans studied. Young wealthy Roman boys were often taught by Greek slaves and sometimes sent to Athens for advanced training, as was Caesar's principal assassin, Brutus. In Greek, during Caesar's time, his family name was written Καίσαρ (Kaísar), reflecting its contemporary pronunciation. Thus, his name is pronounced in a similar way to the pronunciation of the German Kaiser.

In Vulgar Latin, the original diphthong [ae̯] first began to be pronounced as a simple long vowel [ɛː] . Then, the plosive /k/ before front vowels began, due to palatalization, to be pronounced as an affricate, hence renderings like [ˈtʃeːsar] in Italian and [ˈtseːzar] in German regional pronunciations of Latin, as well as the title of Tsar. With the evolution of the Romance languages, the affricate [ts] became a fricative [s] (thus, [ˈseːsar] ) in many regional pronunciations, including the French one, from which the modern English pronunciation is derived.

Caesar's cognomen itself became a title it was promulgated by the Bible, which contains the famous verse "Render unto Caesar the things which are Caesar's, and unto God the things that are God's". The title became, from the late first millennium, Kaiser in German and Tsar or Czar in the Slavic languages. The last Tsar in nominal power was Simeon II of Bulgaria, whose reign ended in 1946. This means that for approximately two thousand years, there was at least one head of state bearing his name.

Keluarga

  • Father Gaius Julius Caesar (proconsul of Asia) (proconsul of Asia in 90s BC)
  • Mother Aurelia (one of the Aurelii Cottae)
  • First marriage to Cornelia (Cinnilla), from 84 BC until her death in 69 or 68 BC
  • Second marriage to Pompeia, from 67 BC until he divorced her around 61 BC over the Bona Dea scandal
  • Third marriage to Calpurnia, from 59 BC until Caesar's death
    , by Cornelia, born in 83 or 82 BC , by Cleopatra VII, born 47 BC, and killed at age 17 by Caesar's adopted son Octavianus.
  • Posthumously adopted: Gaius Julius Caesar Octavianus, his great-nephew by blood (grandson of Julia, his sister), who later became Emperor Augustus.
    (born 85 BC): The historian Plutarch notes that Caesar believed Brutus to have been his illegitimate son, as his mother Servilia had been Caesar's lover during their youth. [144] Caesar would have been 15 years old when Brutus was born. (born kira-kira 60s BC), the daughter of Caesar's lover Servilia was believed by Cicero among other contemporaries, to be Caesar's natural daughter. (born kira-kira 85–81 BC): On several occasions Caesar expressed how he loved Decimus Brutus like a son. This Brutus was also named an heir of Caesar in case Octavius had died before the latter. Ronald Syme argued that if a Brutus was the natural son of Caesar, Decimus was more likely than Marcus. [145]

Grandchild from Julia and Pompey, dead at several days, unnamed. [146]

    , mother of Caesarion , mother of Brutus , queen of Mauretania and wife of Bogudes
    (married to his paternal aunt Julia) (his relative through Antony's mother Julia) (his third cousin)

Rumors of passive homosexuality

Roman society viewed the passive role during sexual activity, regardless of gender, to be a sign of submission or inferiority. Indeed, Suetonius says that in Caesar's Gallic triumph, his soldiers sang that, "Caesar may have conquered the Gauls, but Nicomedes conquered Caesar." [147] According to Cicero, Bibulus, Gaius Memmius, and others (mainly Caesar's enemies), he had an affair with Nicomedes IV of Bithynia early in his career. The stories were repeated, referring to Caesar as the Queen of Bithynia, by some Roman politicians as a way to humiliate him. Caesar himself denied the accusations repeatedly throughout his lifetime, and according to Cassius Dio, even under oath on one occasion. [148] This form of slander was popular during this time in the Roman Republic to demean and discredit political opponents.

Catullus wrote two poems suggesting that Caesar and his engineer Mamurra were lovers, [149] but later apologised. [150]

Mark Antony charged that Octavian had earned his adoption by Caesar through sexual favors. Suetonius described Antony's accusation of an affair with Octavian as political slander. Octavian eventually became the first Roman Emperor as Augustus. [151]

During his lifetime, Caesar was regarded as one of the best orators and prose authors in Latin —even Cicero spoke highly of Caesar's rhetoric and style. [152] Only Caesar's war commentaries have survived. A few sentences from other works are quoted by other authors. Among his lost works are his funeral oration for his paternal aunt Julia and his Anticato, a document written to defame Cato in response to Cicero's published praise. Poems by Julius Caesar are also mentioned in ancient sources. [153]

Memoar

  • NS Commentarii de Bello Gallico, usually known in English as The Gallic Wars, seven books each covering one year of his campaigns in Gaul and southern Britain in the 50s BC, with the eighth book written by Aulus Hirtius on the last two years.
  • NS Commentarii de Bello Civili (Perang Saudara), events of the Civil War from Caesar's perspective, until immediately after Pompey's death in Egypt.

Other works historically have been attributed to Caesar, but their authorship is in doubt:

  • De Bello Alexandrino (On the Alexandrine War), campaign in Alexandria
  • De Bello Africo (On the African War), campaigns in North Africa and
  • De Bello Hispaniensi (On the Hispanic War), campaigns in the Iberian Peninsula.

These narratives were written and published annually during or just after the actual campaigns, as a sort of "dispatches from the front." They were important in shaping Caesar's public image and enhancing his reputation when he was away from Rome for long periods. They may have been presented as public readings. [154] As a model of clear and direct Latin style, The Gallic Wars traditionally has been studied by first- or second-year Latin students.

Penulisan sejarah

The texts written by Caesar, an autobiography of the most important events of his public life, are the most complete primary source for the reconstruction of his biography. However, Caesar wrote those texts with his political career in mind, so historians must filter the exaggerations and bias contained in it. [155] The Roman emperor Augustus began a cult of personality of Caesar, which described Augustus as Caesar's political heir. The modern historiography is influenced by the Octavian traditions, such as when Caesar's epoch is considered a turning point in the history of the Roman Empire. Still, historians try to filter the Octavian bias. [156]

Many rulers in history became interested in the historiography of Caesar. Napoleon III wrote the scholarly work Histoire de Jules César, which was not finished. The second volume listed previous rulers interested in the topic. Charles VIII ordered a monk to prepare a translation of the Perang Galia in 1480. Charles V ordered a topographic study in France, to place The Gallic Wars in context which created forty high-quality maps of the conflict. The contemporary Ottoman sultan Suleiman the Magnificent catalogued the surviving editions of the Komentar, and translated them to Turkish language. Henry IV and Louis XIII of France translated the first two commentaries and the last two respectively Louis XIV retranslated the first one afterwards. [157]

Politik

Julius Caesar is seen as the main example of Caesarism, a form of political rule led by a charismatic strongman whose rule is based upon a cult of personality, whose rationale is the need to rule by force, establishing a violent social order, and being a regime involving prominence of the military in the government. [158] Other people in history, such as the French Napoleon Bonaparte and the Italian Benito Mussolini, have defined themselves as Caesarists. [159] [160] Bonaparte did not focus only on Caesar's military career but also on his relation with the masses, a predecessor to populism. [161] The word is also used in a pejorative manner by critics of this type of political rule.

Depictions

Bust in Naples National Archaeological Museum, photograph published in 1902


The first wife: Cornelia

The first of Julius Caesar’s wives was Cornelia, daughter of the four-time consul Lucio Cornelio Cinna. They were married in 84 B.C. when Caesar was fifteen or sixteen, and she was about thirteen or fourteen, until 69 B.C.

During the fifteen years that the marriage lasted (a third of which they spent separated), the young couple had to live challenging moments. When Caesar did not want to give in to pressure from Lucio Cornelio Sulla (the dictator at the time) to get a divorce, Cornelia’s dowry was confiscated, and they had to flee to avoid arrest. On that occasion, only the intervention of Aurelia’s family, Julio Caesar’s mother, saved them from losing their lives.

Sometime between 78 and 75 B.C., Cornelia gave birth to Julia the only legitimate descendant Julius Caesar would have in his entire life. Years later, in 59 B.C., Julia would marry Pompey the Great to strengthen the First Triumvirate ties.

It was likely a happy union, which does not mean that Caesar had numerous relationships with women of all walks of life. It was commonly accepted that aristocratic husbands sought to satisfy their libido in other women’s arms, often prostitutes. Still, this did not mean that many couples were not very much in love and had an active sex life.

In 69 B.C., before Caesar left Rome to serve as a quaestor (a public official) in Hispania, Cornelia died in childbirth, and her stillborn did not survive either.

It was not uncommon for older women from noble families to receive grandiose public funerals. Still, the decision to hold one for Cornelia drew attention because she was still very young.

Since many understood it as a sign of genuine affection from a man with a good heart to his wife, his gesture was very well received by the people. However, Caesar indeed took advantage of the event for political gain by reminding the crowd how honorable his lineage was and his family’s services to the state.


Why Julius Caesar Built a Bridge Over The Rhine And Destroyed it 18 Days Later

In the early summer of 55 BC Julius Caesar had already begun his conquest of Gaul three years earlier. At that time the eastern border of the new provinces was located on the Rhine. The Germanic tribes on the eastern side of the river launched incursions to the west under the protection provided by this natural border.

But on the other side of the river there were also tribes allied with Rome, like the Ubians. They offered Caesar ships for the legions to cross the river and attack the Germanic tribes.

The Ubians, too, who from all the nations beyond the Rhine, had sent ambassadors to Caesar and formed an alliance and given hostages, earnestly begged “to bring them help, because they were gravely oppressed by the Suebi or, if other matters prevented him, let him at least transport his army up the Rhine ' that this would be enough for their present help and their hope for the future (…) They promised a large number of ships to transport the army.

Julius Caesar, Comments on the Gallic War IV.16

Caesar's Rhine Bridge, by John Soane (1814)

However, Caesar rejected the offer and decided to build a bridge instead. In doing so, he would demonstrate not only his support for the Ubian allies, but also Rome's ability to carry the war whenever it wished across the border. Also, as he wrote, that he considered ships unsafe, this was more consistent with his own dignity and that of the Roman people.

Caesar, for the reasons I have mentioned, had resolved to cross the Rhine but not to cross it in ships that he did not consider sufficiently safe, nor did he consider consistent with his own dignity or that of the Roman people. Therefore, although he had the greatest difficulty in forming a bridge, due to the breadth, speed and depth of the river, he felt that he should try it himself, or that his army should not be led in any other way.

Julius Caesar, Comments on the Gallic War IV.17

The construction was carried out between present-day Andernach and Neuwied, downstream from Koblenz, an area where the depth of the river would be up to 9 meters. Watchtowers were erected on both banks to protect the entrances, and piles and barriers were placed upriver as a measure of protection against attacks and debris carried by the current.

Caesar's 40,000 soldiers built the bridge in just 10 days on double wooden piles that were driven into the riverbed, dropping a huge and heavy stone on them as a mace. The construction system ensured that the greater the flow, the harder the bridge was held together.

Illustration of Caesar’s Rhine Bridge from “History of Rome, and of the Roman people, from its origin to the invasion of the barbarians" (1883)

Two foot-and-a-half thick logs pointed at the bottom, and as long as the river was deep, were locked together with two feet of separation these were inserted and fitted with devices into the river, and were driven with mallets, not perpendicularly like posts, but inclined and stretched out towards the river current. Then further down, at a distance of forty feet, he would set in front of the first two others locked in the same way and struck against the force and current of the river. Both, in addition, were kept firmly separated by beams two feet thick (the space occupied by the junction of the piles), placed at their ends between two brackets on each side, and consequently that these were in different directions and fixed on opposite sides to each other, so great was the force of the work,

Julius Caesar, Comments on the Gallic War IV.17

It is not known who was the engineer responsible for this new bridge construction technique, which had never been used before. Cicero suggests in a letter that his name was Mumarra, although we cannot rule out the possibility that it was Marcus Vitruvius Polio (the architect who was the author of the famous Ten Books of Architecture ), who was meeting Caesar. It is estimated that the length of this bridge could have been between 140 and 400 meters, and its width between 7 and 9 meters.

Once it was finished, Caesar crossed with his troops to the other bank, where the Ubians were waiting for him. Then he learned that the tribes of the Sicambrians and the Suevi had withdrawn to the East, in anticipation of his arrival. Not being able to present a battle and after destroying some villages, Caesar decided to turn around, cross again the bridge and knock it down behind him. It had lasted 18 days.

A scale model of Caesar’s Rhine Bridge at The Museo Della Civilta Romana in Rome. Foto: MrJennings/Flickr

Two years later history repeated itself. Near the place where the first bridge had been and about 2 kilometers to the north (possibly next to the current Urmitz), Caesar built a second, although this time he did not elaborate on the details.

Having decided on these matters, he began to build a bridge a little higher than the place where he had earlier transported his army. Once the plan is known and established, the work is carried out in a few days due to the great effort of the soldiers. Having left a strong guard on the bridge on the side of the Trier, so that no commotion would occur between them, he led the rest of the forces and the cavalry.

Julius Caesar, Comments on the Gallic War VI.9

As before, the Suebi, seeing what was coming their way, retreated to the East again, abandoning their villages and hiding in the forests. Caesar returned to Gaul and again destroyed the bridge. Only this time he only knocked down the end that touched the eastern shore, erecting defense towers to protect the rest of the bridge.

In order not to completely free the barbarians from the fear of their return, and in order to delay his warriors, having driven back his army, he broke, over a distance of 200 feet, the far end of the bridge, which connected him to the Ubian shore, and at the end of the bridge he erected four-story towers, and placed a guard of twelve cohorts for the purpose of defending the bridge, and reinforced the place with considerable fortifications.

Julius Caesar, Commentary on the Gallic War VI.29

Reconstruction of a Roman pile driver, used to build the Rhine bridge at Ehrenbreitstein Fortress in Koblenz, Germany. Foto: Holger Weinandt/Wikimedia Commons

Caesar's strategy produced the desired effect. It demonstrated the power of Rome and her ability to cross the Rhine at will at any time. Thus Julius Caesar secured the borders of Gaul, and for several centuries the Germans refrained from crossing them.

It also allowed the Roman colonization of the Rhine Valley, where permanent bridges would later be built in Castra Vetera (Xanten), Colonia Claudia Ara Agrippinensium (Colonia), Confluentes (Coblenz) and Moguntiacum (Mainz).

Archaeological excavations carried out in the late 19th century in the Andernach-Neuwied area found remains of pilings in the Rhine (their analysis in the 20th century showed that they had been cut down in the middle of the 1st century BC), which may belong to Caesar's bridges, although the place of its location has never been able to be determined exactly.

As for the Ubians, in 39 BC Marco Vipsanio Agrippa finally transferred them to the west bank of the Rhine in payment their longstanding loyalty, as they had been asking for a long time, fearing reprisals from neighboring tribes. They remained loyal to Rome throughout its history, eventually mixing with the Franks who gave rise to new kingdoms in Gaul during the Middle Ages.

This article was originally published in La Brújula Verde. It has been translated from Spanish and republished with permission.


3 Pics: What Julius Caesar actually looked like: New Science 3D reconstruction

[Spears sent me this one. This is fascinating. Most people don’t seem to have an idea of what real leaders and great generals actually looked like. They aren’t necessarily handsome. In this case, a birth problem may have affected the size of his head. One friend of mine has a theory that we’re ruled by people with big heads, and this new sculpture of Caesar would certainly fit his theory!! All that matters is that the work must be accurate. This then would be the face of one of the greatest white men who ever lived. His feats were incredible. The Romans were used to doing amazing stuff, but his feats exceeded even those! He was a true warrior and a great leader whom men died for willingly. You don’t get that kind of loyalty without extreme ability. In that sense, Caesar and Napoleon are identical. You’re looking at the face of one of the greatest military minds of all time.

The scientist says that Caesar was about corpses – and indeed that is true! The Romans were a white people who killed their enemies by the million even though they only had swords, spears and a few other devices! They created a civilisation that was 1,000 years ahead of the rest of Europe! We must become like them again! That is what Hitler was trying to do. WHITE WARRIORS create CIVILISATIONS!

NB: I’ve also put a translation of the original Dutch article below the first one because it contains a bunch of additional details. Jan]

Julius Caesar, the reviled and revered Roman emperor, has gotten a new look, thanks to a recent 3D reconstruction of his face and head.

The National Museum of Antiquities in the Netherlands unveiled the new bust Friday, giving viewers a fascinating image of what Caesar would have looked like in real life — complete with a huge bump covering part of his head.

“So he has a crazy bulge on his head,” said physical anthropologist Maja d’Hollosy, the person behind the reconstruction, according to Dutch newspaper, HLN.

The reconstruction was made on the basis of a 3D scan of a marble portrait in the museum’s collection.

“The piece of sculpture is pretty damaged,” the museum said in a news release. “That is why it was decided to supplement the disappeared parts, such as nose and chin, on the basis of second portraiti of Julius Caesar: the so-called Tusculum bust.”

The museum said the 3D reconstrcution will be on display until the end of August.

Here is a direct translation from the original Dutch because the other stories do not contain many details:-

The Roman ruler Julius Caesar, murdered on March 15 of the year 44 BC, has a new face. Physical anthropologist Maja d’Hollosy made it for the National Museum of Antiquities in Leiden, where it is unveiled today and can still be seen for free.

The bust was the idea of ??archaeologist Tom Buijtendorp, whose book “Caesar in the Low Countries” was published at the same time. D’Hollosy used, among other things, his research results that have now been published. She went on for the face of Caesar further from two busts, one from Leiden and one from Turin, and from coins with Caesar from his own time. Especially the head in Turin seems certain that it is made alive and reasonably realistic, says Buijtendorp. “So he has a crazy bulge on his head. A doctor said that such a thing occurs in a heavy delivery. You do not invent that as an artist. And realistic portraits were in fashion “.

The image in Leiden is very similar to that in Turin, although the most powerful man of his time lost a piece of his forehead, mouth and nose. D’Hollosy made a 3d print of the head from Leiden. There she took off the top layer and then applied a new one, using clay and silicone rubber. That way Julius got a lifelike face. “I do not let him look happy and friendly. He was a general who was about corpses, “says d’Hollosy.


New 3D reconstruction of Caesar

This is rediculous. They just guessed like anyone else. "Lets take all the descriptions and statues and then blow up his forehead like a hot air balloon. Ya. that's what he looked like." He looks like Mr. Mackey. There is zero chance in hell that he looked like an over-inflated beach ball. I choose to keep thinking about rugged, slightly balding Caesar with a human-sized head.

You're telling me thats not the face of somebody who demands the result of their soldiers? /S

This is the ideal caesarian head. You may not like it, but this is what peak gravitas looks like.

His face looks really small in comparison to his head lol

There’s no way this is accurate, right? It looks like a perfect model that someone inflated.

Coming from Pixar this summer. Finding Pompey

Tag line: “He just wanted to be Consul.”

I thought so too, but still interesting to see, I think. The dimensions need to be it a bit more balanced, as all things should be.

What is this reconstruction based on? Caesar was cremated and we have no remains or a skull from which to form something like this

Looks like they took the hundreds of relatively life-like statues and images of Caesar, turned them sideways, and adjusted the "freakish birdiness" factor upward by about four for no God-damned reason at all.

According to the article (Dutch), the Tusculum Portrait, except with some artist's interpretation.

Not my Caesar! Edit: spelling

No wonder the Senate hated him. He’s a heqing beach ball!!

Image from the Rijksmuseum van Oudheden (Dutch Imperial Museum of Antiquity). More photos can be found in this article (also Dutch).

Sorry, I don't have the time to translate the articles right now.

3D reconstruction of face Caesar: 'Just someone you can come across at the supermarket'

A new 3D reconstruction of the head of Julius Caesar shows a remarkably ordinary man. The image is based on recent research, but leaves much to be guessed about.

His cheeks have sunken and deep lines are running through his skin. Despite his frown, his eyes are quite soft and his mouth is soft. In relation to his narrow face, his bald skull is strikingly large, and there is a strange bump on it.

This new performance by Julius Caesar takes some getting used to. It is a 3D reconstruction, presented yesterday at the National Museum of Antiquities in Leiden. The everyday appearance, ostensibly of flesh and blood, looks a lot more approachable than the strict soldier on images from Antiquity or the angular manners from Asterix and Obelix. It fits into a trend of museums that bring (pre) historical persons to life through reconstructions based on excavated skulls. Only the reconstruction in Leiden does not have a skull, but antique busts as a starting point. Caesar's skull has been lost.

So, lean and with receding hairline, Caesar may have looked shortly before he was killed in 44 BC. Can, emphasize the archaeologists responsible for the reconstruction, Tom Buijtendorp and Maja d'Hollosy. They based their images on a bust in the archaeological museum in Turin. According to Buijtendorp, this is a rough copy of a fairly faithful, vanished image. "On the bust of Turin there is a lump on the right side of the skull," he explains. 'Such a bump is a typical remnant of a heavy birth,' showed pediatric surgeon Van Lindert of the Radboud UMC. A sculptor would not think of such a thing, so that argues for the veracity of the original. '

On the authority of Buijtendorp, d'Hollosy, specialist in facial reconstructions, used the Turin bust as one of her sources of information. A scan of a bust from the Rijksmuseum van Oudheden served as a basis. A couple of millimeters were 'peeled off' and then they applied layers of 'skin' again by hand.

'In addition, there is always some interpretation', explains d'Hollosy. 'The space for the eyes on the bust of Leiden, for example, was ridiculously large. I have reduced it to a normal size. And the nose of the Turin bust was strangely narrow. It is now made just as wide as the remains of the nose on the statue from Leiden. '

That such an interpretation is necessary, says PhD student Sam Heijnen, who is doing research at the Radboud University on imperial portraits: ɽuring Caesar's life, it was in order to make really real images, including wrinkles. But that did not make them truthful yet. These images were also full of symbolism. "Saskia Stevens, senior of Utrecht University, explains:" Men like Caesar wanted to show that they had always worked hard for the Roman cause. That's why they liked to show themselves tough and wrinkly: that fitted in with the ideal of a dedicated, sober soldier. We do not know how well such an image represented the person. '

Buijtendorp acknowledges these uncertainties: 'This reconstruction mainly challenges the prevailing image of Caesar. He is truer than the well-known symmetrical Caesar statues with their full hairdo. But the image is not the absolute truth either. '

Stevens is enthusiastic about the result, with all the triumphs: 'I find this very attractive to a general public. Instead of those strict white images you suddenly see a person someone you might encounter in the supermarket. "


Mar 15, 44 BCE: Julius Caesar Assassinated

On March 15, 44 B.C.E., Julius Caesar, dictator of Rome, was stabbed to death by dozens of senators.

Arts and Music, Social Studies, World History

Death of Caesar

Julius Caesar was assassinated by about 40 Roman senators on the "ides of March" (March 15) 44 BCE. Caesar's death resulted in a long series of civil wars that ended in the death of the Roman Republic and the birth of the Roman Empire.

Painting by Jean-Leon Gerome, courtesy the Walters Art Museum

On March 15, 44 B.C.E., Julius Caesar was stabbed to death in Rome, Italy. Caesar was the dictator of the Roman Republic, and his assassins were Roman senators, fellow politicians who helped shape Roman policy and government.

Julius Caesar was immensely popular with the people of Rome. He was a successful military leader who expanded the republic to include parts of what are now Spain, France, Germany, Switzerland, and Belgium. Caesar was also a popular author who wrote about his travels, theories, and political views.

Many members of the Senate, a group of appointed (not elected) political leaders, resented Caesar&rsquos popularity and arrogance. After Caesar attained the status of dictator for life in 44 B.C.E., these officials decided to strike the ultimate blow against his power. A group of as many as 60 conspirators decided to assassinate Caesar at the meeting of the Senate on March 15, the ides of March. Collectively, the group stabbed Caesar a reported 23 times, killing the Roman leader.

The death of Julius Caesar ultimately had the opposite impact of what his assassins hoped. Much of the Roman public hated the senators for the assassination, and a series of civil wars ensued. In the end, Caesar&rsquos grandnephew and adoptive son Octavian emerged as Rome&rsquos leader. He renamed himself Augustus Caesar. The reign of Augustus marked the end of the Roman Republic and the start of the Roman Empire.


The Battle of Gergovia

The Gallic tribes called a general council at Bibracte and declared Vercingetorix as the supreme commander of the allied Gallic forces. He demanded 15,000 cavalry which he planned to use to destroy the grain and hay supplies of the Romans. Vercingetorix also ordered his allies to burn their corn as part of his scorched earth policy. The next aim was to attack the Roman province in the knowledge that if the region fell, the Roman commander was marooned.

Lucius Caesar was in charge of defending the province, and he had 22 cohorts at his disposal. Vercingetorix began to shadow Julius Caesar&rsquos movements as the Roman commander was marching across the margins of Lingones territory. Caesar was attempting to get to the province to prevent any major attack. However, Vercingetorix was within nine miles of Caesar&rsquos camp and called a staff conference.

Statue of Vercingetorix &ndash Renegade Tribune

The Gallic leader thought that Caesar was looking to concede the campaign by retreating for safety. He believed the Romans would return with an even bigger force, so Vercingetorix called on his army to attack as soon as possible. The plan was to use cavalry to swoop down on the supply train and either slow the legionnaires down or force them to abandon their supplies.

Alas, Vercingetorix&rsquos plan backfired at the Battle of Gergovia when his initial cavalry charge failed. Caesar probably expected the Gauls to follow up with infantry but in reality, the Gallic infantry was too far from the action to have an impact. Caesar quickly realized the enemy&rsquos mistake and forced its cavalry to retreat. However, he refused to commit his infantry and Vercingetorix was able to retreat to Alesia, the capital of the Mandubii. The attack at Gergovia was poorly planned and executed, but worse was to come for Vercingetorix as he was totally outmaneuvered by Caesar in the next conflict.


Writing the First Long-Lived Extortion Law

Caesar's Lex Iulia De Repetundis (The Extortion Law of the Julians) was not the first law against extortion: that is generally cited as the Lex Bembina Repetundarum, and usually attributed to Gaius Gracchus in 95 BCE. Caesar's extortion law remained a fundamental guide for the conduct of Roman magistrates for at least the next five centuries.

Written in 59 BCE, the law restricted the number of gifts that a magistrate could receive during his term in a province and ensured that governors had their accounts balanced when they left.


Tonton videonya: EL ÚLTIMO SUEÑO DE ABRAHAM LINCOLN (Mungkin 2022).