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Perang Dunia I: Koneksi Global

Perang Dunia I: Koneksi Global


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Dengan sangat cepat, para pemain kekuatan dalam Perang Dunia I memahami bahwa mereka sedang berperang dalam perang dunia, tetapi perspektif tentang konflik tersebut bervariasi dari satu negara ke negara lain.


5 September 1914

Saat Tentara Jerman maju menuju Paris, tentara Prancis dan Inggris melakukan serangan balik di sepanjang garis Sungai Marne.

Setelah pertempuran berdarah, dengan lebih dari 250.000 korban di kedua belah pihak sejak perang dimulai, tentara Jerman dan Sekutu mencoba untuk mengepung satu sama lain ke utara sampai mereka mencapai pantai Belgia. Kedua pasukan menggali. Garis pertahanan ditarik tepat di seberang timur laut Prancis. Ini menandai akhir dari pertempuran mobile dan awal dari empat tahun perang parit di Front Barat.


Rabu, 31 Januari

08:40: Registrasi (University of Zurich, Gedung Utama, Ruang KOL-F-104, lantai satu) / Pembukaan Konferensi oleh Thomas Schmutz dan Gwendal Piégais

09:15 – Panel saya: Koneksi Global di Masa Perang.

  • Dr. Martin Deuerlein (University of Tübingen): Perang Global, Hubungan Internasional dan Pertanyaan Ketertiban di Dunia yang Saling Bergantung
  • Dr. Steve Marti (Sarjana Independen, Ontario, Kanada): Dominion Over Empire: Ras dan Rekrutmen di Koloni Pemukim Inggris
  • Dr. Francesca Piana (Swiss National Science Foundation): Perang Tanpa Akhir: Gendering International Relief, 1914-1923
  • Dr. Daniel Palmieri (Arsip Palang Merah, Jenewa): Kemanusiaan dalam Perang Global: Komite Internasional Palang Merah dalam Perang Dunia I

Presentasi Peneliti Muda: Adam Ohnesorge (University of Zurich): Tahanan sipil yang terlupakan dan misi perdamaian Swiss di Corsica selama Perang Besar

11:45 – Panel II: Pertanyaan tentang perspektif – Soundscapes dan Time Frames.

  • Dr. Yaron Jean (Sapir College, Negev, Israel): The Sounds of the Invisible: Warfare Technology, Obliteration and Global Wars
  • Sarah Laufs (Heinrich-Heine-University Düsseldorf): Memikirkan Kembali Kerangka Waktu Perang Besar – Pecahnya, Kesinambungan, dan Pengalaman Perang Jerman

13:40 – Panel III: Swiss dunia.

  • Dr. Peter Fleer (Arsip Federal Swiss Berne): Arsip dan Isu Perang Dunia Pertama – Melakukan Penelitian di Arsip Federal Swiss
  • PD Dr. Daniel Marc Segesser (University of Bern): Dari Bregenz melalui Turkestan ke Solothurn: Migrasi Militer dalam Perang Dunia Pertama dalam Perspektif transnasional
  • Dr. Michael Olsansky (MILAK ETH): Antara Diplomasi Militer dan Pertukaran Militer Transnasional: Perwira Swiss di Teater Perang Perang Dunia Pertama
  • Nina Flurina Caprez (University of Fribourg): “Ketika perdamaian sulit” – Apa yang diceritakan sejarah biara tentang Perang Dunia I dan akibatnya

15:50 – Panel IV: Migrasi di Masa Perang.

  • Prof. Dr. Christian Koller (University of Zurich Sozialarchiv): Migrasi Perang Antarbenua Pasukan Kolonial Prancis dan Inggris
  • Maria Ines Tato (CONICET – University of Buenos Aires – RavignaniInstitute / Superior School of War – Fakultas Angkatan Darat – Universitas Pertahanan Nasional): Solidaritas transnasional: Komunitas imigran di Argentina menghadapi Perang Besar
  • Dr. Konstantinos Karatzas (Rekan Peneliti, Institut Hubungan Ekonomi Internasional, Pusat Penelitian Interdisipliner Yunani London): Perspektif Yunani: Migrasi, Impian Kekaisaran, dan TragediDr.
  • Shuang Wen (Universitas Nasional Singapur): Dari Moral ke Moral: YMCA dan Buruh Tionghoa-Arab di Perang Dunia I

17:20 Istirahat dan Makan Malam Swiss

18:45 Keynote and Roundtable (Sejarah Kekerasan) – Gedung Utama UZH, Ruang F-101

Sambutan Pembukaan oleh Dekan Prof. Dr. Klaus Jonas (Fakultas Seni dan Ilmu Sosial, University of Zurich)

19:00 Keynote I Prof. Dr. Christian Gerlach (University of Bern): Perang Dunia I dalam sejarah global kekerasan massal pada sepertiga pertama abad ke-20

19. 45 Meja bundar. Ketua: Prof. Dr. Philip Dwyer (Direktur Pusat Sejarah Kekerasan di Universitas Newcastle, Australia): Kekerasan Massal di Awal 20 th abad bersama Prof. Dr. Annette Becker (University of Nanterre, Paris), Prof. Dr. Christian Gerlach (University of Bern), Prof. Dr. Hans-Lukas Kieser (University of Newcastle, Australia, dan University of Zurich), Dr. Mark Jones (University College Dublin, Pusat Studi Perang)


Perang Dunia I: Koneksi Global - SEJARAH

Setelah Perdana Menteri Ali Razmara menyarankan agar tidak menasionalisasi industri minyak dengan alasan teknis, dia dibunuh oleh Khalil Tahmasebi, seorang anggota kelompok teroris Fadayan-e Islam.

Sebelum diangkat menjadi perdana menteri, Mossadeq menjabat sebagai menteri dan gubernur pada 1920-an. Penentangannya terhadap aksesi Reza Shah menghasilkan hukuman penjara dan kemudian tahanan rumah. Mossadeq kembali ke parlemen pada tahun 1941 setelah Reza Shah dilengserkan dari kekuasaan dan digantikan oleh putranya, Mohammed Reza Pahlevi.

Untuk mencegah kepentingan asing mengendalikan ekonomi Iran, Perdana Menteri Mohammed Mossadeq menasionalisasi industri minyak. Langkah ini mendapat perlawanan yang luar biasa, terutama dari Inggris, yang memiliki kepentingan minyak yang cukup besar. Mossadeq menjadi pahlawan nasional bagi banyak orang Iran dan memperoleh prestise internasional -- Waktu majalah menamainya Man of the Year untuk tahun 1951.

Libya memperoleh kemerdekaan pada 24 Desember 1951. Pengaturan panggung untuk kemerdekaan adalah resolusi PBB 1949 yang menyatakan bahwa Libya harus merdeka sebelum 1 Januari 1952. Negara pertama yang memperoleh kemerdekaan melalui resolusi PBB, Libya telah menjadi koloni Italia dari awal 1900-an melalui Perang Dunia II dan kemudian di bawah kendali Prancis dan Inggris pada periode pascaperang (1945-1951).

Turki merayakan penerimaannya ke dalam NATO. Dengan itu, negara memperoleh perlindungan dari agresi Soviet. Hal ini juga lebih mungkin untuk menerima bantuan asing untuk membantu modernisasi. Banyak orang Turki menafsirkan peristiwa itu sebagai simbol negara-negara Barat yang akhirnya menerima Turki sebagai salah satu dari mereka.

Jenderal Muhammad Naguib menetapkan kedaulatan Mesir Raja Faruq I secara resmi turun tahta tiga hari kemudian. Peristiwa tersebut secara kolektif dikenal sebagai Revolusi Mesir. Kol. Gamal Abd al-Nasser, yang memimpin kekuatan nasionalis dalam kudeta, akhirnya merebut kekuasaan dari Naguib pada tahun 1954.

Masyarakat untuk Perlindungan Alam di Israel (SPNI) didirikan untuk mempromosikan pembangunan berkelanjutan di tanah tersebut. SPNI mensponsori wisata, penelitian, kegiatan pendidikan, dan kampanye publik untuk perlindungan lingkungan dan pelestarian sejarah.

Yad Vashem, Otoritas Peringatan Para Martir dan Pahlawan Holocaust, berfungsi sebagai gudang arsip dan buku-buku tentang Holocaust dan untuk informasi biografis tentang mereka yang tewas di dalamnya. Kompleks ini menampung dua museum, ruang pameran, dan monumen.

Dengan latar belakang Perang Dingin, kelompok intelijen Inggris dan Amerika khawatir bahwa aspirasi nasionalis Mossadeq akan mengarah pada pengambilalihan komunis pada akhirnya. Untuk menghindari hal ini, presiden AS Dwight Eisenhower menyetujui operasi gabungan Inggris-Amerika untuk menggulingkan Mossadeq. Setelah hari pertama tampaknya kudeta telah gagal, dan Shah melarikan diri ke Baghdad. Kerusuhan yang meluas terjadi kemudian, dinyalakan oleh CIA dan dinas intelijen Inggris, dan Mossadeq dikalahkan. Mohammed Reza Shah Pahlevi kembali berkuasa, dan Jenderal Fazlollah Zahedi, pemimpin kudeta militer, menjadi perdana menteri.

Mengakhiri tahun tuntutan Mesir, Inggris setuju untuk menarik diri dari Sudan dan memberikan rakyat Sudan kesempatan untuk pemerintahan sendiri. Pakta bersama, yang ditandatangani pada tahun 1953, memungkinkan masa transisi tiga tahun menuju kemerdekaan penuh. Pemilihan diadakan pada akhir tahun 1953, dan pemerintah republik pertama mulai menjabat pada tahun 1954.

Mesir dan Inggris membuat pakta di Terusan Suez, mengakhiri 72 tahun pendudukan Inggris. Sebagai imbalannya, Mesir setuju untuk mempertahankan kebebasan navigasi kanal. Pasukan Inggris yang berkekuatan 80.000 orang terakhir meninggalkan zona terusan pada 14 Juni 1956.

Aljazair berjuang dalam perang yang panjang dan berdarah sebelum merebut kembali kemerdekaannya dari Prancis pada tahun 1962. Lebih dari 500.000 dari kedua belah pihak tewas dalam konflik tersebut.

Konstitusi Mesir yang baru memberikan perempuan hak untuk memilih dan mencalonkan diri untuk jabatan terpilih.

Festival Internasional Baalbeck meresmikan musim pertamanya dengan penampilan Jean Cocteau's La Mesin Neraka. Festival ini berlangsung setiap tahun hingga tahun 1975, berhenti tampil selama perang saudara, dan dilanjutkan pada tahun 1997. Festival ini telah menampilkan pemain paling populer di dunia Arab serta artis internasional, termasuk Ella Fitzgerald, Rudolf Nureyev, dan Balet Bolshoi.

Bey Tunisia, atau penguasa turun-temurun, mengambil alih kendali monarki konstitusional baru. Setahun kemudian, Habib Bourguiba, presiden badan legislatif negara itu, Majelis Nasional, bergerak untuk mengadopsi konstitusi yang mengakhiri tradisi berabad-abad pemerintahan oleh bey. Kebijakan Bourguiba selama dekade berikutnya bertujuan untuk lebih mensekularisasikan dan memodernisasi masyarakat Tunisia.

Kemungkinan besar sebagai tanggapan atas keputusan AS untuk mencabut janji bantuan luar negerinya untuk membantu membangun proyek Bendungan Tinggi Aswan, Nasser memutuskan untuk menasionalisasi Terusan Suez. Pendapatan tolnya memberikan sumber pendapatan yang signifikan yang dibutuhkan. Ini membuat marah Inggris dan Prancis, mantan pemilik kanal.

Inggris dan Prancis bersekongkol untuk merebut kembali kanal yang pernah mereka miliki, dengan bantuan Israel. Israel menginvasi Sinai, dan Inggris dan Prancis "campur tangan" dan menduduki zona kanal. Mereka mundur di bawah tekanan AS dan Soviet, tidak berhasil dalam upaya mereka.

Pada tahun 1956, nasionalisme Arab menerima dorongan besar dari upaya gagal Inggris dan Prancis untuk mendapatkan kembali kendali Terusan Suez dari Mesir setelahnya, Raja Hussein dari Yordania membebaskan semua komandan Inggris dari posisi mereka di Liga Arab. Pada tahun 1957, dengan negara-negara Arab berjanji untuk memberi Yordania cukup uang untuk membebaskannya dari ketergantungannya pada subsidi Inggris, Hussein mencabut perjanjian Anglo-Yordania yang telah memberi Yordania kemerdekaan penuh dari mandat Inggris pada tahun 1946 dengan imbalan penggunaan militer Inggris yang berkelanjutan. fasilitas di Yordania. Pasukan akan ditarik sepenuhnya dari Yordania akhir tahun ini.

Mesir dan Suriah bergabung untuk membentuk satu unit politik, dengan Gamal Abd al-Nasser sebagai presidennya. Ini dirancang sebagai langkah pertama untuk menciptakan persatuan pan-Arab. Dengan demikian, penduduknya hanya dikenal sebagai orang Arab, negara yang disebut "wilayah Arab." Pada tahun 1958, UAR membentuk federasi longgar dengan Yaman, yang disebut Amerika Serikat. Kudeta militer tahun 1961 di Suriah memaksa pecahnya UAR, meskipun Mesir terus menggunakan nama tersebut sampai tahun 1971.

Raja Faisal II dibunuh karena dianggap terlalu dekat dengan bekas kekuatan kolonial Inggris. Irak dinyatakan sebagai republik, dan Jenderal Abdel Karim Qasim menjadi presiden. Pemerintah baru mengejar kebijakan luar negeri yang jelas anti-Barat.

Dengan gerakan pan-Arab Mesir dan Suriah yang mengobarkan sentimen di antara kelompok-kelompok agama Lebanon, pemerintah koalisi Lebanon yang rapuh melemah. Loyalitas tentara Lebanon kepada Presiden Kamil Shamun goyah. Dengan pecahnya perang saudara antara Kristen dan Muslim, Shamun menyerukan AS untuk mengirim pasukan untuk mengamankan perdamaian. AS, yang ingin menghindari kudeta lain (seperti yang baru saja terjadi di Irak), mengirim 5.000 Marinir ke Lebanon.

Ledakan minyak memberi Libya kemerdekaan finansial yang baru ditemukan, mengubah negara dengan salah satu standar hidup terendah menjadi satu yang penuh peluang, dengan lapangan kerja yang berkembang dan rencana untuk perumahan yang lebih baik, perawatan kesehatan, dan pendidikan. Menginvestasikan sebagian besar keuntungan minyaknya di bagian lain ekonomi, Libya memperluas basis industri, pertambangan, dan pertaniannya, mengairi daerah-daerah baru di gurun. Sebagian besar peternakan besar milik pemerintah menghasilkan bahan makanan yang sebelumnya diimpor, termasuk jagung, gandum, dan buah jeruk, serta sapi, domba, dan unggas.

Minyak pertama kali ditemukan di Abu Dhabi pada tahun 1959. Setahun kemudian, minyak juga ditemukan di gurun Abu Dhabi. Dubai, Sharjah, dan Ras al-Khaimah mengikuti dengan penemuan mereka sendiri selama beberapa tahun ke depan. Abu Dhabi, yang dulu dikenal sebagai desa nelayan, kini menjadi yang terkaya di antara semua emirat. Dubai, awalnya dikenal dengan perdagangan mutiaranya, adalah yang terkaya kedua.

Sementara militer Turki setuju dengan Atat rk, pendiri Turki modern, bahwa mereka tidak terlibat dalam politik, mereka membuat pengecualian ketika menyangkut peran mereka sebagai penjaga konstitusi dan Kemalisme. Pada tahun 1960, militer menentukan bahwa pemerintah telah menyimpang dari prinsip-prinsip Kemalis dan bahwa republik dalam bahaya. Pada tanggal 27 Mei 1960, tentara merebut gedung-gedung pemerintah utama dan pusat-pusat komunikasi dan menangkap sebagian besar perwakilan Partai Demokrat (DP), serta presiden dan perdana menteri. Pemerintah digantikan oleh Komite Persatuan Nasional (CNU), sebuah pemerintahan sementara yang sebagian besar terdiri dari personel militer. Pada Januari 1961 sebuah konstitusi baru disahkan, dan pada bulan Oktober pemilihan diadakan, mengembalikan pemerintah ke pemerintahan sipil.

Organisasi Negara Pengekspor Minyak (OPEC) dibentuk sebagai kelompok negara berkembang penghasil minyak yang ingin memasuki pasar minyak internasional. Tujuannya hari ini adalah untuk mengoordinasikan kebijakan minyak dan untuk mengamankan harga yang adil bagi negara-negara anggotanya (yang sekarang menjadi nomor 13) dan pasokan yang dapat diandalkan ke negara-negara pelanggannya.

Setelah Kuwait memperoleh kemerdekaannya dari Inggris pada 19 Juni, Presiden Abdel Karim Qasim dari Irak menegaskan klaim lama Irak atas Kuwait. Kuwait mencari dan menerima dukungan militer Inggris, yang pada akhirnya tidak diperlukan, karena Irak tidak melancarkan serangan. Irak tidak pernah secara resmi menarik klaimnya, bagaimanapun, dan pada tahun 1990 menginvasi Kuwait dan mengklaimnya sebagai provinsi ke-19 Irak.

Sejumlah besar uang mengalir ke Abu Dhabi (sekarang bagian dari UEA) ketika mulai mengekspor minyak bumi. Karena populasi lokal yang kecil tidak dapat memenuhi kebutuhan proyek konstruksi yang direncanakan (misalnya, rumah sakit, jalan, sekolah), pekerja asing dipekerjakan oleh ratusan ribu.

Jendela Chagall, yang menggambarkan pemandangan 12 putra Yakub, ditampilkan pada upacara penahbisan sinagoge. Empat dari jendela mengalami kerusakan dalam Perang Enam Hari pada tahun 1967, dan Chagall memasang penggantinya pada tahun 1969. Tiga jendela masih ditandai dengan lubang peluru.

Ketika perwira tentara di utara menggulingkan imam baru, Muhammad al-Badr, Republik Arab Yaman didirikan. Perang saudara terjadi. Kaum republikan didukung oleh Mesir dan Uni Soviet, dan para pendukung imam didukung oleh Arab Saudi dan Inggris.

Partai Ba'ath, kesal dengan pemerintahan diktator Presiden Qasim, bergabung dengan militer untuk memaksanya keluar dari kekuasaan. Kolonel Abd al-Salam Muhammad Arif menjadi presiden dan memerintah sampai kematiannya dalam kecelakaan helikopter sembilan bulan kemudian.

Turki memiliki sejarah panjang dalam memproduksi film. Film Turki pertama yang tercatat adalah film dokumenter yang diproduksi pada tahun 1914, dan studio film swasta pertama di republik ini, Kemal Films, mulai beroperasi pada tahun 1921.

Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini dan kaum konservatif agama lainnya marah dengan kebijakan yang mereka yakini bertentangan dengan kebiasaan Islam. Blak-blakan tentang sejumlah masalah, penolakan Khomeini terhadap RUU Status Pasukan Shah (yang memungkinkan kekebalan diplomatik personel militer AS untuk kejahatan yang dilakukan di Iran) mengakibatkan pengasingannya ke Turki. Pada tahun 1965, Khomeini pindah ke Irak, di mana ia tinggal sampai tahun 1978.

Pada saat yang sama pemerintah Presiden Gamal Abd al-Nasser menindak Ikhwanul Muslimin, kelompok lain yang dicurigai menghasut masyarakat terhadap pemerintah juga ditutup. Salah satu kelompok tersebut adalah Asosiasi Wanita Muslim Zaynab al-Ghazali. Al-Ghazali mendirikan Asosiasi Wanita Muslim pada tahun 1936, pada usia 18 tahun, untuk menanamkan doktrin-doktrin Islam dalam pikiran wanita, mengajari mereka tentang hak dan kewajiban mereka, dan menyerukan pendirian negara Islam yang dipandu oleh Al-Qur'an dan Sunnah Nabi. Nabi Muhammad. (Sunnah adalah contoh kepemimpinan praktis dan panduan ideologis yang diberikan oleh Muhammad, yang mengubah kepercayaan kepada Tuhan menjadi budaya dan peradaban, dan memungkinkan pria dan wanita untuk mengembangkan cara hidup.) Diadili pada tahun 1966 dan dijatuhi hukuman istilah seumur hidup, al-Ghazali dirilis pada tahun 1971 oleh penerus Nasser, Anwar al-Sadat. Dia terus menjadi pendukung pendirian negara Islam bersatu.

Ekspedisi arkeologi Denmark menemukan tanda-tanda tempat tinggal manusia di semenanjung Qatar sejak 4000 SM. Sebuah tim Inggris pada tahun 1973 dan tim Prancis pada tahun 1976 melanjutkan penggalian dan menambah temuannya.

Undang-Undang Imigrasi tahun 1965 menghapus sistem kuota yang ditetapkan pada tahun 1921 yang membatasi masuk ke AS menurut asal-usul nasional seseorang. Sebelum tahun 1961, preferensi yang kuat telah ditunjukkan untuk orang-orang dari negara-negara belahan bumi Barat, sementara orang-orang dari negara-negara Timur diberikan visa yang jauh lebih sedikit. Pada akhir 1970-an, dengan orang-orang yang melarikan diri dari krisis politik di Iran, Palestina, Lebanon, dan Afghanistan, imigrasi dari negara-negara Timur Tengah ke AS akan kembali meningkat secara dramatis.

Krisis perbankan komersial memperlambat industri perbankan go-go di Beirut, yang pada pertengahan abad telah menjadi gudang pilihan uang minyak dari Arab Saudi dan negara-negara Teluk. Beirut, "Swiss di Timur Tengah," juga merupakan tujuan favorit elit Eropa dan Amerika. Setelah krisis perbankan mereda, perekonomian Lebanon akan kuat kembali hingga perang saudara pada tahun 1975.

Setelah kematiannya, Presiden Abd al-Salam Muhammad Arif dari Irak digantikan oleh kakak laki-lakinya, Abd al-Rahman Arif.

Novel dan cerita pendek Agnon terutama menyangkut pengalaman orang-orang Yahudi Eropa Timur (Ashkenazi). Tulisannya menggabungkan sumber-sumber tradisional dengan eksperimen sastra abad ke-20 (seperti aliran kesadaran). Novelnya yang paling terkenal, Sehari Sebelum Kemarin (Temol Shilshom), diterbitkan pada tahun 1945.

Konflik menyala setelah tiga minggu meningkatnya ketegangan, termasuk penumpukan pasukan Arab besar-besaran di Semenanjung Sinai, serta blokade Mesir di Selat Tiran di Laut Merah dari kapal ke atau dari Israel. Pada tanggal 5 Juni 1967, Israel membalas dengan melancarkan serangan mendadak ke Mesir. Negara-negara Arab lainnya, termasuk Suriah, Irak, Kuwait, dan Yordania, bergabung dengan Mesir dalam pertempuran itu. Israel merebut Dataran Tinggi Golan dari Suriah, Sinai dan Jalur Gaza dari Mesir, dan Yerusalem Timur dan Tepi Barat dari Yordania sebelum gencatan senjata disepakati.

Republik Demokratik Rakyat Yaman (Yaman Selatan) berada dalam kekacauan ekonomi dengan penutupan Terusan Suez setelah Perang Enam Hari dan hilangnya perdagangan Inggris. Negara ini menerima bantuan dari Uni Soviet dan negara-negara komunis lainnya untuk tetap bertahan.

Yasser Arafat, pemimpin faksi al-Fatah Organisasi Pembebasan Palestina (PLO), terpilih sebagai ketua komite eksekutif. Setelah pemilihannya, dia memindahkan pasukan gerilya utama PLO ke Yordania.

Buku ini, novel Oz yang paling terkenal, dianggap melambangkan perjuangan berbagai budaya di Yerusalem untuk hidup berdampingan.

Setelah kudeta Ba'athist, Jenderal Ahmad Hassan al-Bakr menjadi presiden Irak. Sistem politik negara menikmati stabilitas relatif selama 10 tahun ke depan. Uang dari ekspor minyak berkontribusi pada ledakan ekonomi. Antara 1972 dan 1975, pendapatan minyak tahunan meningkat dari $1 miliar menjadi $8,2 miliar.

Film Sapi itu, yang menyangkut desa miskin yang kehilangan satu-satunya sapi dan kehancuran dari kehilangan itu, dilarang di Iran setelah dirilis karena penggambaran kemiskinan dan kondisi sosial yang buruk. Film Mehrjui yang kontroversial dan diakui secara kritis mengantar Gelombang Baru Iran dalam pembuatan film, terkenal karena penolakannya terhadap komersialisme dan melodrama demi kesadaran sosial. Tradisi film Iran saat ini termasuk yang paling terkenal di dunia.

Golda Meir yang lahir di Kiev dan dibesarkan di Milwaukee beremigrasi ke Palestina pada tahun 1921. Setelah memegang posisi dalam pemerintahan pertama Israel mulai tahun 1948 -- sebagai duta besar, anggota Knesset, dan menteri luar negeri selama 10 tahun -- Meir mengambil peran sebagai perdana menteri setelah kematian Levi Eshkol pada tahun 1969. Di bawah kepemimpinannya, Israel memperkuat hubungan dengan AS Memimpin Israel selama Perang Yom Kippur, Meir dikritik keras karena kurangnya kesiapan Israel terhadap serangan mendadak. Pada bulan April 1974 dia mengundurkan diri, meskipun telah memenangkan pemilihan beberapa bulan sebelumnya. Dia meninggal pada usia 80 pada bulan Desember 1978.

Ali menggantikan Qahtan al-Shabi, yang digulingkan oleh Front Pembebasan Nasional Marxis. Tahun berikutnya negara ini berganti nama menjadi Republik Demokratik Rakyat Yaman, dan selama pemerintahan Ali, sebagian besar ekonomi ditempatkan di bawah kendali pemerintah.

Qaddafi menciptakan sistem politiknya sendiri, Teori Internasional Ketiga, sebagai alternatif dari kapitalisme dan komunisme. Ini adalah kombinasi dari sosialisme dan Islam. Mulai saat ini, semua aspek kehidupan Libya akan dikendalikan oleh Qaddafi. Dia mendeklarasikan jamahariyya (pemerintahan massa) dan menyerukan perubahan politik, hukum, dan sosial sesuai dengan "buku hijau"-nya.

Pemrosesan makanan, tekstil dan kerajinan tradisional, dan industri perbankan di Libya termasuk di antara yang berada di bawah kendali pemerintah. Ekonomi terutama bergantung pada pendapatan dari sektor minyak, dan meskipun Libya menikmati pendapatan minyak yang sangat besar ditambah dengan populasi kecil, sebagian besar uang tetap berada di dalam pemerintah terpusat, dan sedikit mengalir ke populasi umum.

Bendungan Aswan kedua, atau "Tinggi", dibangun dengan bantuan Soviet untuk menggantikan Bendungan Aswan "Rendah" yang lebih tua dan kurang efektif. Bendungan tersebut telah menghentikan banjir tahunan sungai dengan menjebak airnya di waduk dan melepaskannya secara perlahan selama musim kemarau. Hal ini memungkinkan petani di sepanjang Sungai Nil untuk menanam sepanjang tahun. Sayangnya, bendungan juga menjebak lumpur subur sungai, memaksa penggunaan pupuk buatan oleh petani dan menyebabkan polusi. Efek lain dari bendungan adalah erosi tepian sungai dan tingkat salinitas tanah yang tinggi.

Imam Muhammad al-Badr, pemimpin Yaman Utara, diasingkan ke Inggris. Sebuah pemerintahan baru yang didirikan oleh kaum republiken hanya berlangsung selama empat tahun sebelum para pemimpin militer merebut kendali dan mengarahkan negara ke arah yang konservatif.

Sebagai sultan, Qaboos memegang kekuasaan mutlak atas Oman dan membuat semua keputusan penting. Baik sultan maupun perdana menteri, ia mengepalai kementerian luar negeri, pertahanan, dan keuangan. Setelah periode isolasi Oman dari seluruh dunia, Sultan Qaboos bin Said membuka negara itu ke seluruh dunia.

Jenderal Faruk Görler, pemimpin panglima angkatan bersenjata, menyampaikan memorandum kepada presiden Turki Cevdet Sunay yang menuntut "pemerintah yang kuat dan kredibel." Pejabat sipil diberitahu bahwa militer akan mengambil alih administrasi negara kecuali jika ditemukan pemerintah yang dapat mengendalikan kekerasan dan melaksanakan reformasi ekonomi dan sosial, termasuk reformasi tanah, yang diatur dalam konstitusi 1961. Perdana Menteri Suleyman Demirel mengundurkan diri pada hari yang sama. Nihat Erim menggantikan Demirel dan mulai membentuk "persatuan nasional, di atas pemerintahan partai" yang akan meminta dukungan dari partai-partai besar. Peristiwa ini dikenal sebagai "kudeta demi memorandum".

Pada tahun 1974 Raja Hussein memberikan perempuan hak untuk memilih dan mencalonkan diri untuk jabatan publik. Tetapi karena tidak ada pemilihan parlemen antara 1968 dan 1989, perempuan harus menunggu 15 tahun untuk menggunakan hak ini.

Sebagai pendukung Mesir, Yordania, dan Suriah dalam Perang Enam Hari 1967 melawan Israel, Arab Saudi masih menyimpan dendam ketika Perang Yom Kippur (Perang Oktober) meletus. Sebagai pembalasan atas dukungan AS terhadap Israel, Arab Saudi berpartisipasi dalam boikot minyak Arab tahun 1973 terhadap AS dan negara-negara Barat lainnya. Harga minyak empat kali lipat, secara dramatis meningkatkan kekayaan dan pengaruh politik Arab Saudi.

Siprus Turki dan Yunani hidup bersama di pulau Siprus selama hampir lima abad. Pada tanggal 15 Juli 1974, presiden digulingkan dalam kudeta militer. Diplomasi gagal menyelesaikan krisis. Turki menginvasi Siprus melalui laut dan udara pada 20 Juli 1974, menegaskan haknya untuk melindungi minoritas Turki. Pembicaraan damai gagal, dan orang Turki menguasai 40 persen pulau itu -- sama dengan pembagian Siprus. Turki terus menolak untuk menarik pasukannya, meskipun berulang kali dikecam oleh PBB.

Ratu Noor, lahir Lisa Halaby di Amerika Serikat, memainkan peran yang sangat terlihat selama pemerintahan suaminya, bekerja keras untuk memajukan hal-hal penting bagi Yordania dan dunia yang lebih luas. Dia mengarahkan dan mensponsori program yang berkomitmen untuk kemajuan perempuan dalam masyarakat, perawatan kesehatan anak-anak, pendidikan, seni, dan perlindungan lingkungan. Dia juga secara aktif mempromosikan pertukaran internasional sebagai sarana untuk meningkatkan pemahaman tentang politik Timur Tengah dan meningkatkan hubungan Arab-Barat.

Hanya lima tahun setelah Perang Yom Kippur, presiden AS Jimmy Carter menjamu perdana menteri Israel Menachem Begin dan presiden Mesir Anwar al-Sadat di Camp David. Pertemuan bersejarah ini akan menghasilkan kesepakatan damai pertama yang ditandatangani oleh Israel dan salah satu tetangga Arabnya. Beberapa bulan negosiasi yang lebih rinci mengarah pada penandatanganan perjanjian damai pada tanggal 26 Maret 1979, di Washington, D.C. Berdasarkan ketentuan perjanjian itu, kendali atas Sinai kembali ke Mesir, sementara Israel mempertahankan Jalur Gaza. Sebagai imbalan atas kembalinya Sinai, Mesir mengakui Israel dan menjalin hubungan diplomatik penuh dengan negara Yahudi. Lebih lanjut, Mesir menjamin bahwa sebagian besar pasukannya akan berada lebih dari 50 kilometer dari perbatasan Israel. Perjanjian itu juga memungkinkan warga Mesir dan Israel untuk melakukan perjalanan antara kedua negara. Sebagian besar negara Arab memboikot Mesir sebagai akibat dari perjanjian Oman adalah satu-satunya pengecualian. Kurang dari tiga tahun setelah perjanjian itu ditandatangani, para ekstremis Islam membunuh Sadat.

Selama akhir 1970-an, perbedaan pendapat dan demonstrasi yang memprotes kediktatoran Shah meningkat di Iran. Tulisan-tulisan Ayatollah Khomeini, Pemimpin Tertinggi Muslim Syiah di pengasingan, mulai beredar luas. Sepanjang bulan-bulan terakhir tahun 1978, para demonstran merebut gedung-gedung pemerintah, menutup bisnis dengan pemogokan besar-besaran, dan membunuh pejabat pemerintah. Pada 16 Januari 1979, Shah melarikan diri dari Iran Khomeini kembali pada 1 Februari. Kurang dari sebulan kemudian, pada 12 Februari, perdana menteri juga melarikan diri.

Setelah Shah diusir dari Iran, Ayatollah Khomeini kembali dari pengasingan ke kerumunan beberapa juta orang yang menyambut. Dewan Revolusi Islam dibentuk, dan negara itu dinyatakan sebagai Republik Islam Iran pada 1 April. Khomeini dan para pendukungnya menyalahkan Shah dan pengaruh Barat karena menindas Iran dan merusak tradisi Islam Iran.

Di bawah Ayatollah Khomeini, kode hukum berdasarkan Islam diperkenalkan di Iran, mengakhiri kebijakan modernisasi radikal Shah. Versi ketat standar agama Islam Khomeini menjadi hukum kehidupan sehari-hari. Beberapa orang Iran kesal dengan sistem agama yang ketat. Banyak orang yang menerima pengaruh budaya Barat meninggalkan Iran, termasuk kebanyakan orang Yahudi dan Kristen. "Islamisasi" pemerintah berlanjut hingga abad ke-21.

Sekelompok fundamentalis Muslim Sunni menyerukan penggulingan barikade pemerintah Saudi yang pro-Barat di dalam Masjid Suci Mekah. Setelah dua minggu pertempuran, pengepungan berakhir, menyebabkan 27 tentara Saudi dan lebih dari 100 pemberontak tewas. Enam puluh tiga pemberontak lagi kemudian dipenggal di depan umum.

Para mahasiswa menuntut kembalinya Shah untuk diadili atas kejahatan. Meskipun beberapa sandera dibebaskan, 52 orang Amerika ditahan selama 444 hari sebelum mereka dibebaskan. Menanggapi krisis penyanderaan ini, AS membekukan semua aset Iran yang diinvestasikan di AS.

Uni Soviet menginvasi Afghanistan dalam upaya menstabilkan pemerintahannya dan mendukung sosialisme. Konflik berlangsung 10 tahun dan sering disebut sebagai Vietnam Uni Soviet. Tujuh puluh ribu tentara Soviet akan mati selama konflik.


05 Antara Perang Dunia I dan Perang Dunia II

Perang dunia pertama diakhiri dengan kesepakatan damai untuk menghentikan perang. Kemudian Doktrin Monroe ditandatangani oleh semua negara. Menjadi Perang Dunia I hanya perang terjadi lagi. Penyelesaian damai diputuskan oleh Amerika Serikat, Prancis, dan Inggris. Jerman disalahkan karena menyebabkannya, sehingga harus membayar kerugian di semua negara yang terlibat, menyebabkan banyak rasa malu bagi negara Jerman. Itu kehilangan bagian tanah dan orang, Militer dikurangi menjadi kurang dari seperdelapan dari ukuran, Jerman diperintahkan untuk membayar biaya perang. Secara keseluruhan, moral turun karena jutaan orang terbunuh. Semua orang berada dalam depresi ekonomi, memberi ruang bagi banyak ide baru tentang revolusi dan nasionalisme di seluruh dunia. Jepang, Jerman, Italia dan Amerika Serikat dan banyak lainnya memiliki keinginan yang berbeda bahwa semua percaya satu-satunya cara untuk mendapatkan kembali kekuasaan dan upaya ekonomi adalah untuk memperluas negara.

Perbatasan Jepang semakin dekat dan populasi mereka meningkat pesat, dengan tidak ada lagi dukungan ekonomi dari AS yang menghentikan perdagangan. Jepang merasa tidak punya pilihan selain memperluas ke luar untuk kemajuan rakyatnya. Memberitahu warganya bahwa kemenangan dan suksesi mereka harus berdarah, karena itulah satu-satunya cara untuk memulihkan ekonomi Jepang. Warga Jerman marah dengan hasilnya dan merasa perlunya revolusi baru terjadi. Ini menciptakan kebangkitan komunisme, dan Adolf Hitler ingin memiliki militerisme tertinggi di negaranya, dengan ide-ide perang yang mungkin terbentuk. Dia adalah seorang komandan militer yang ingin menginvestasikan ekonomi pada militerisasi negara dan menciptakan persenjataan baru. Peran sosial baru bagi perempuan sementara laki-laki dalam perang, mereka sekarang dapat mencari pekerjaan di luar rumah dan memiliki hak untuk memilih.

Gelombang baru nasionalisme dan propaganda menyebar di semua negara, Hollywood mulai mendramatisasi perang dan dengan teknologi baru radio dan televisi, propaganda mencapai puncaknya. AS memasuki isolasi. Ini semua bisa dihindari jika ada organisasi dunia pusat untuk campur tangan dalam ketidakpastian negara.

Kontribusi Siswa #2:

Pada akhir Perang Dunia I ada pemenang yang jelas dan pecundang yang jelas. Sekutu yang menang mengambil kesempatan untuk membuat perjanjian yang menetapkan kesalahan yang jelas atas miliaran dolar dan nyawa yang hilang dalam Perang Dunia I. Dunia dibiarkan dalam depresi ekonomi karena Perang Dunia I dan mendorong balas dendam di antara negara-negara. Jerman dibiarkan dalam keadaan terguncang setelah Perjanjian Versailles diberlakukan. Kecelakaan 1929 semakin menjerumuskan Eropa ke dalam kesulitan ekonomi. Hal ini menyebabkan munculnya nasionalisme di antara kabupaten bersama dengan kebijakan isolasionis untuk menghindari perang lain. Upaya untuk menciptakan ketertiban dunia terjadi ketika Liga Bangsa-Bangsa dibuat tetapi selama perang ternyata tidak efektif. Munculnya diktator muncul selama perang antar seperti Nazisme di Jerman, Fasisme di Italia, Imperialisme di Jepang, dan pemerintahan Totaliter di Uni Soviet. The accumulation of these events lead to the beginning of WWII.

WWI resulted in both immediate and long term consequences. The immediate consequences were the losses of millions of people and the loss of billions of dollars, along with worldwide depression until WWII. The long term consequences were political policies put in place because of the war such as isolationists policies put in place by the U.S. and other countries. The war also weakened countries for future war because of the massive loss of people and money. Women roles began to change due to their war involvement and loss of men. To create order back in each country the League of Nations was created. There was also economic weakness worldwide which created future economic depression.

After WWI Japan turned to democracy and new economic ideas along with new thoughts about diplomacy. Japan declared war on the U.S. because of raw resources needed for independent industrial growth. They also opposed the colonial powers in Southeast Asia which were the British, Dutch, and the French. Germany turned to Nazism and Italy turned to Fascism after WWI which incorporated total government control of society. They both embraced Fascism in order to seek an improved economic stability. The Germans embraced Hitler to fix Germanys current economic problems of a high inflation rate and a high unemployment rate. Hitler also promised to fix the social and political unrest in Germany. As for the U.S. F.D.R. wanted to build confidence in the U.S. economy by creating the New Deal. The New Deal invested in the economy in order to get the U.S. out of economic depression. The U.S. also embraced isolationism to stay out of another war which reduced immigration by 50%. The US moved away from interfering with Latin American affairs and moved toward supporting European allies. After an appeasement failed in Europe this lead to the second world war. To prepare for this war the U.S. To promote nationalism within the U.S. and promote the war, there were films and propaganda aimed at influencing the American people.

Key Vocabulary Terms:

  • Fascism: Fascism is where a dictator has all of the power within the nation and rules all of the people within it. The people are not allowed to go against or disagree with what the government says. Benito Mussolini was the first fascist leader in Europe. The word fascism was taken from the Latin word fasces, which meant official authority. A big focus of the fascist party is, having a very strong military, By the end of World War II, fascism bas banned in West Germany and Italy while in other Countries fascism was broken up.
  • Mandates:Mandates were used by the League of Nations to authorize another nation to govern a former Turkish or German colony. This came into play after World War I. The German colonies throughout Africa were split up among the Allied powers, along with the Ottoman Empire under the authority of Article 22. This was made by the Allies to divide the mandates based on Location, and level of political and economic development. By 1949 all Turkish provinces mandates were independent and no longer in control by European countries. In 1946 the UN trusteeship system replaced the mandate system.
  • Militarism:Militarism is the belief that the country should have a strong military and use it to gain power, or to defend themselves from enemy forces. Nazi Germany was well known for this along with the United States of American. They both practice militarism. After World War II militarism in Germany was reduced by a significant amount since they lost the war.
  • League of Nations:The League of Nations was created after world war one in the Treaty of Versailles. It was an international organization to help maintain world peace. Its purpose was to prevent wars from happening and they would do this through negotiation and collective security, which was if one country went against another, they went against all the other countries in the League of Nations. During World War II it was not active because the members were unable to take action against Germany, Italy and Japan. Eventually in 1946 League of Nations had been replaced by the United Nations.
  • CaliphIn Arabic caliph means successor. A caliph is known as the leader of the Muslim state, who is a successor from the prophet Muhammad. The caliphs were chosen through a form of early democracy called shura. The caliphs were to carry out prophet Muhammad’s work and to be the head of the Muslim community but they were never seen as having the same prophetical power as Muhammad.
  • Balfour DeclarationThe Balfour Declaration was a statement written by Arthur James Balfour from the British government giving the Jews a national home in Palestine, without prejudice against the non-Jewish community rights and political status. Zionists were people who wanted Palestine to be the Jewish National home, so when the Balfour Declaration was created it was considered a huge triumph for Zionists. Later on, the Jews violated the “Civil and religious rights of non-Jewish communities in Palestine”.
  • Nation-state:It is the type of state where the political entity of a state and the cultural entity of a nation are joined. It hit its peak in the when the Nazis were in control of Germany. Any people with non-German background were not considered a part of the people and were targeted for persecution.
  • Political democracy:The political system where it is government by the people using majority rule. There was a move away from this system in many countries after the war, with many going towards a more socialist way of government.
  • Socialism:The theory that states that the means of production, distribution, and exchange by the community as a whole. After WWI, there was a rise of this political system in Russia and Germany and ultimately led to WWII.
  • Totalitarian state: It is a repressive, unfree nation. They government has complete control over political, social, and cultural matters. After WWI, this type of state had risen to power in Italy, Germany, and in the Soviet Union.
  • Normalcy: This is the movement the US had to return things back to normal after the war. This included disbarment of the military, returning to an isolationistic foreign policy, and restricting immigration. Other things that happened during this time were the prohibition of alcohol and the Great Depression.
  • Good Neighbor Policy:It was the foreign policy of President Roosevelt’s administration towards Latin America. They would withdraw the troops from Latin and South America. They also would support the democratic governments in those areas. In addition, they would have indirect control through economic trading companies.

Potential Essay Questions:

Essay Question #1. Describe the rise of power of Hitler in Germany. What were the reasons for Hitler's success in gaining public support for his plans?

This answer depends heavily upon the lecture notes and video clips displayed during class along with what you learned about Hitler's ideas described in the earlier unit on Genocide and The Holocaust. Especially note the interactions between England's Prime Minister Chamberlain and Hitler. Some of the assigned readings would also be useful: Citino's "Meet the Frekorps", and Dattilo's "German Austria Annexation".


World War I: Global Connections - HISTORY

The Middle East has always had a rich abundance of natural resources, although which resources are coveted and valued has changed over time. Today, abundant petroleum fields dominate the area's economy. The Middle East is similarly disproportionately rich in natural gas (32 percent of the world's known natural gas reserves are in the region) and phosphate (Morocco alone has more than half of the world's reserves).

Water has always been an important resource in the Middle East -- for its relative scarcity rather than its abundance. Disputes over rights to water (for example, building a dam in one country upstream from another) are a fundamental part of the political relationships in the region. Water for irrigation is necessary for many of the ecosystems to sustain crops.

In the 18th and 19th centuries, major European nations competed to establish and maintain colonies around the world. Superior military power and economic leverage allowed them to create new markets for their manufactured goods, and to exploit the natural resources of the African, American, and Asian continents.

Since the early part of the 19th century, Europeans vied to control the Middle East. The Sykes-Picot Agreement of 1916 divided the Ottoman lands between the British and the French, giving those nations control over any natural resources, most importantly oil.

Modern armies were thirsty for oil. The British navy was the first to switch from coal to oil in 1912, and other new technologies, like automobiles and airplanes, quickly and drastically increased the demand for fuel.

The United States was becoming an important player in world affairs during the early 20th century, and soon Americans found they, too, had a vested interest in developing and controlling oil reserves in the Middle East to supply their growing needs.

More than 1,000 years ago, Zoroastrians in Iran revered the perpetual flames that burned where natural gas vented from the earth. In the early 20th century, British prospectors discovered oil in Iran and in 1908 began the first large-scale drilling projects there. The government of Iran sold the exclusive right to explore and drill for oil in Iran -- a "concession" -- to the Anglo-Iranian Oil Company (AIOC). The British government bought a controlling stake in AIOC, and by the start of World War I, Iranian oil was Britain's most important strategic resource.

In time, Iranians grew to resent the AIOC. The terms of the concession were so unbalanced that British investors were rewarded handsomely while the government of Iran made very little profit. Foreign businessmen and engineers in Iran led extravagantly wealthy lifestyles that contrasted sharply with the poverty of the local population.

Frustration with foreign exploitation led to nationalization. The Iranian government of Mohammed Mossadeq nationalized the Anglo-Iranian Oil Company in 1953, but in a coup engineered by the American Central Intelligence Agency (CIA), this nationalist government was overthrown, and a government friendly to Western interests was installed under the control of the Shah of Iran.

The continued economic and cultural influence of the West and the repressive nature of the Shah's regime led to the Iranian Revolution of 1979. The Shah was overthrown and exiled, and the new Islamic Republic of Iran was established, led by the Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini.

After World War II, Britain and France gave up control over much of the Middle East, as they could no longer afford to continue their imperialist strategies, either politically or economically. But a new world power, the United States, increased its presence in the region as American demands for oil were rapidly growing and outstripping domestic supply.

Standard Oil of California first discovered oil in Saudi Arabia in 1936. The huge deposits there and in the neighboring Persian Gulf countries -- the United Arab Emirates, Kuwait, and Bahrain -- established these countries as some of the richest in the world.

Continuing American military power and domestic lifestyles depend on available access to Middle Eastern oil and reasonably low world petroleum prices. Thus, U.S. foreign policy initiatives work to support the stability of pro-U.S. governments, prevent anti-U.S. powers or blocs from forming, and reduce tension and potential armed conflict in the region.

Relations between the Saudi and U.S. governments have traditionally remained strong. Some Americans have questioned that relationship since the events of September 11, 2001, when Osama bin Laden and several other Saudis were involved in the attacks on the World Trade Center and the Pentagon. At the same time, many Saudis mistrust their government's close relationship with the U.S. and resent other American policies in the region, such as U.S. support for Israel and the U.S.-led bombing of Iraq. The presence of armed U.S. troops in Saudi Arabia -- the birthplace of Islam -- is particularly galling to many Muslims.

Because the Middle East has the world's largest deposits of oil (55 percent of the world's reserves) in an easily extracted form, Middle Eastern oil continues to be necessary to the United States. American dependence on foreign oil has grown steadily over the years currently about 55 percent of the oil consumed in the U.S. is imported. This reliance on foreign oil leaves the country vulnerable to unilateral political and economic acts by oil producing countries. For example, although the U.S. advocated economic sanctions against Iraq after the Gulf War, 9 percent of the oil used by Americans after the war still came from Iraq, shipped through other countries.

Oil money has created both opportunities and problems for the region.

Middle Eastern nations have learned to manipulate their production of oil as an international strategy. After the unsuccessful Yom Kippur War with Israel in 1973, an OPEC oil embargo by Arab nations demonstrated a new way to influence European and American policy. Oil prices quadrupled from $3 a barrel in 1972 to $12 a barrel in 1974. In the U.S., the era of cheap gas came to an end, stimulating research on increasing energy efficiency, conservation, and alternative fuels as well as exploration for alternative sources of oil.

Uneven distribution of petroleum deposits has created a disparity of wealth and power in the Middle East. Gulf countries with relatively small populations have the most oil. When workers from countries with large, poor populations, such as Egypt, come to the Gulf region to work, they are often treated as second-class citizens. Meanwhile, wealthy Saudis and Kuwaitis may vacation in Egypt, openly drinking alcohol and displaying other behaviors that would not be permitted in their home countries. Even within oil-rich nations themselves, there is a large gap between rich and poor.

Oil will continue to be an important regional and global issue. In fact, some question whether one reason the U.S. seeks to maintain influence in Afghanistan after the overthrow of the Taliban is American interest in Central Asian oil and a possible pipeline through Afghanistan. Some estimates show that by 2050, landlocked Central Asia will provide more than 80 percent of the oil distributed to the U.S. As a result, the control of pipelines through Afghanistan or Turkey to distribution centers will be of increasing importance to the United States.

Another resource of vital importance to the region is water. Egypt, Iran, and Turkey are the only countries in the region with abundant fresh water resources. Roughly two-thirds of the Arab world depend on sources outside their borders for their water supply.

The scarcity of water is a major cause of tension between states in the region. Former U.N. Secretary General Boutros Boutros-Ghali has said that the next war in the Middle East will be fought over water.

The Jordan River provides 75 percent of Jordan's water and 60 percent of Israel's. In the early 1960s, Arab nations worked to divert the headwaters of the Jordan away from Israel and towards Jordan. One of Israel's objectives in the Arab-Israeli Six Day War of 1967, among others, was to control the Golan Heights and prevent this plan from being carried out. Israel is still reluctant to restore control of the Golan Heights to Syria. Though often ignored in Western analyses, water is one of the most contentious issues in the discussion of any peace plan for the Jordan Valley.

The Euphrates River, which originates in Turkey, provides most of the water for eastern Syria and almost all of Iraq. Turkey plans to build almost two dozen hydroelectric power dams for its growing population and industries. These dams, joining the completed Atatürk Dam, would drastically reduce the water available to Syria and Iraq. Syria, in turn, has dammed part of the Euphrates under its control, further choking off the water supply to Iraq. International complaints and protests are often challenged on the grounds that the dams are domestic infrastructure projects.

While most Americans may think of the Middle East as primarily desert, agriculture has been important for millennia, with farmers adapting to environmental conditions in different locations.

The history of cotton in Egypt is a good example of how Europeans have exploited the region's agricultural resources. During the American Civil War, American cotton grew scarce, and Egyptian cotton became increasingly important to England. Agreements signed in 1880 with European powers meant that no tariffs were applied to cotton. This meant that more and more farmable land was used to grow cotton instead of food crops. Most of the profits were taken by Egypt's small ruling elite and the Europeans. This system remained in place until the Egyptian Revolution of 1952, when the era of state-sponsored industrialization and a movement toward self-sufficiency began, reducing the amount of cash crops, like cotton, that were exported.

Middle Eastern cotton and textile products, however, are still an important export of the region. More and more garments in American malls, for example, carry a "Made in Turkey" label. Other important agricultural exports found in supermarkets around the world include citrus, dried dates, figs and apricots, and olive products.

Oil Prices on the Rise:
http://www.pbs.org/newshour/bb/middle_east /july-dec99/oil_11-23.html
NewsHour discusses Iraqi leader Saddam Hussein's decision to cut off his country's oil exports to push up prices around the world.

Afghanistan's Agony:
http://www.pbs.org/newshour/bb/asia/jan- june01/afghanistan_3-29.html
NewsHour reports on the devastating drought and political turmoil in Afghanistan. (March 2001)

Oil Price History and Analysis:
http://www.wtrg.com/prices.htm
A discussion of crude oil prices, the relationship between prices and rig count, and the outlook for the future of the petroleum industry.

Is America Stuck in the Middle East?:
http://www.pbs.org/thinktank/show_978.html
Is Middle East oil still crucial to American security?

Global Issues - Middle East:
http://www.globalissues.org/Geopolitics/MiddleEast.asp
Modern Middle Eastern geopolitics have always been about oil. Given the vast energy resources that form the backbone of Western economies, the Middle East has been of paramount importance.

Energy Matters - The Mideast Oil Crisis:
http://library.thinkquest.org/20331/history/mideast.html
A brief history of the Mideast oil crisis in the 1970s and reasons for the embargo

Water Diplomacy in the Middle East:
http://www.netcomuk.co.uk/

jpap/dolat.htm
This site explains how access to water is a key environmental factor in the politics of the Middle East.

People, Land and Water:
http://www.idrc.ca/research/xplaw_e.html
Articles and research dedicated to land and water issues in the Middle East and Africa

Water in the Middle East:
http://www.columbia.edu/cu/lweb/indiv/mideast /cuvlm/water.html
A list of links from Columbia University's Middle East and Jewish Studies Department related to water issues in the Middle East

Commanding Heights Web Site:
http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/commandingheights/
An economist's look at world history and development from 1910 to the present

Middle East: Crossroads of Faith and Conflict (map):

Supplement to National Geographic, October 2002


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Both the war and the peace that followed have marked our world in indelible ways. Especially Europe. The deaths of more than 110,000 Americans in uniform, half to the Spanish flu, were equivalent to just one-quarter of the death toll in the French army alone during the first four months of the war. Europe suffered a bloodbath such as the world had never seen. Two million German soldiers died, along with about 1 million British troops, counting those from the colonies and dominions. Proportionately higher losses were suffered in Russia, Serbia, and Ottoman Turkey, where a war of 20th-century firepower was fought under 19th-century sanitary conditions.

The contrast between American and European perceptions of the world order in the 20th and 21st centuries is incomprehensible without considering the catastrophe of 1914–18. Ever since, Europe has felt an underlying pessimism, a sense of danger and disorder that the United States hasn’t shared. Americans have continued to believe that progress is built into history. Most Europeans, other than Marxists, dropped this notion once the Great War began.

Europeans still call it the Great War—not only because it was huge and momentous, but also because it changed the nature of war itself.

Bagaimana? First, by obliterating the distinction between civilian and military targets. After the early battles of 1914 resulted in a bloody stalemate, the conditions of civilian life behind the lines of occupying armies deteriorated. The Great War created internment camps all over Europe and beyond, to house enemy aliens in the wrong country at the wrong time. Still worse was the treatment of ethnic minorities suspected of disloyalty. After a series of defeats in 1915, the Russian army sent hundreds of thousands of Jews in Galicia from the battlefront to the interior, in case they might welcome German invaders. Armenians in Turkey fared still worse more than 1 million died in the 20th century’s first European genocide.

The bombardment of cities by artillery and aircraft also brought the war to civilians. The German naval warfare against civilian shipping ultimately drew the United States into the war. The Allied blockade of European ports, which continued after the armistice in 1918, was a clear violation of international law.

And consider the changes in mood the war wrought in the United States. The 20 years before the war had seen waves of immigrants arrive from central and eastern Europe, inspiring the use of an epithet—“hyphenated Americans”—that intensified in the course of the war. The loyalties of German Americans, in particular, were thrown into question. The intolerance of wartime continued and grew more vitriolic once a prosperous peace returned. Government witch hunts conducted after the war, such as the so‑called Palmer raids against suspected radicals and anarchists, many of them foreign-born, had their origins in the war itself.

Nine months after the war broke out, the fighting turned even uglier. In April 1915, modern chemical warfare was born on the battlefields of Belgium, and soon became a tolerated (although never legalized) form of weaponry used by all combatants on a frightening scale. In 1918, one of every four shells fired on the western front contained poison gas.

The clouds of chlorine, then phosgene, then mustard gas did not bring any tactical or strategic breakthrough. For one thing, their effectiveness depended on the wind’s direction and the absence of precipitation. When it rained, as it did frequently in Flanders, the gas never rose above ankle level, meaning a soldier could survive if he stayed on his feet. But gas warfare changed the rules of engagement. Gas masks were rudimentary, and left men (and animals) in no-man’s-land without adequate protection. Gas didn’t change the balance of power, but it did change the balance of horror that soldiers faced on the battlefield.

Later, poison gas was used outside Europe—allegedly in Iraq as early as the 1920s, then in Manchuria and Ethiopia in the 1930s. Fear of retaliation, stemming from military leaders’ firsthand experience of gas as soldiers themselves during the Great War, apparently deterred its use against soldiers in World War II, although the Nazis employed Zyklon B, previously known as a powerful pesticide, in concentration camps.

Might gas warfare have come into widespread use without the Great War? Perhaps, but the huge investment in weapons of mass destruction in 1914–18 left a precedent that could not be eradicated. The use of poison gas is with us still, notably in Syria.

The peace treaties signed at the end of the war left a damaged world with an impossible legacy: they handed over control of German colonies in Africa and the Pacific to the victorious powers and inspired hope around the world that Woodrow Wilson’s notion of self-determination for subject peoples would lead to the end of empires. Not quite. Self-determination was the property of the former nations, such as Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Poland, and Serbia—all predominantly Caucasian—embedded in the German, Austro-Hungarian, Ottoman Turkish, and Russian empires. Populations of color would have to wait until, under the mandate of the imperial powers, they reached the “maturity” needed for self-government. When would that be? Nobody could say.

Besides, no matter what was decided during the postwar peace conference at Versailles, the imperial powers had already made their own plans for the Middle East. In 1915, the British high commissioner in Egypt promised the keeper of the holy sites in Mecca independence for Arabs in return for their participation in fighting the Ottoman empire. Two years later, Britain’s Balfour Declaration promised Zionists the opposite: a Jewish homeland in Palestine. And these incompatible promises were complicated even more by the secret Sykes-Picot Agreement in 1916, which divided the post-Ottoman Middle East between French and British spheres of influence and drew arbitrary borders—in Iraq, for instance—that have caused instability and conflict ever since.

As a result, violence exploded outside of Europe in 1919–21, when people who had served the Allied cause militarily and otherwise discovered that their recompense would be pious words and nothing more. This happened first in Egypt, then India, then Korea, then China. The wartime collapse of the Ottoman empire brought down its sultan, the all-powerful caliph, and created a crisis in Islam, which lost its spiritual center Muslim-dominated countries remained colonies ruled (often poorly) by imperial powers under the aegis of the League of Nations. The Muslim Brotherhood, founded in Egypt in 1928 to counter Western exploitation of the Islamic world, was the precursor to al-Qaeda.

The Great War cast its geopolitical shadow across the Far East as well. The extent to which the war fueled the continuing hostility between China and Japan is rarely recognized. The problem arose from the Treaty of Versailles. Both nations, traditionally rivals, were among the victorious delegations. China, however, was the weaker power, plagued by internal strife after its 1911 revolution. Japan had helped the Allies during the war, by convoying Australia’s and New Zealand’s troops across the Indian Ocean and by sending naval cruisers to protect the west coast of Canada. At Versailles, Japan tried to exploit its newly acquired leverage, proposing that the charter of the League of Nations include a commitment to racial equality. President Wilson, as a southern-born politician, knew that any such language would ensure the treaty’s defeat in the U.S. Senate. To prevent the Japanese from walking out of the peace negotiations once their request was turned down, the leaders of Britain, France, and the United States backed Japan’s proposal to grant it temporary control—until 1922, as it turned out—of the Chinese province of Shandong, south of Beijing, which the Germans had controlled during the war.

So much for the principle of self-determination. When push came to shove, Wilson chose to reward Japanese naval power and ignore political justice. When Wellington Koo, a Chinese delegate in Paris, sent home the decision on Shandong, students in Beijing responded with shock and outrage, quickly calling for a mass demonstration at Tiananmen Gate to protest the treaty. At a rally the next day, they formed a new organization called the May Fourth Movement, out of which emerged China’s Communist Party. Ponder this: Woodrow Wilson was its godfather.

Next year, China will host the 22nd Congress of the International Committee of Historical Sciences. Where? In the city of Jinan, the provincial capital of Shandong, a choice likely intended to remind historians that both Japan and the West have a history of humiliating China. Those days are over, but the memories linger.

Beyond the advances in the science of murder and the geopolitical reworkings, the Great War created a deep shift in the public attitude toward war itself. The Great War discredited the concept of glory, a word that many Europeans simply could not swallow. The British poet Wilfred Owen, killed late in the war, wrote that anyone who witnessed a soldier suffocating slowly from poison gas would never repeat “to children ardent for some desperate glory / the old Lie” that it was noble to die for one’s country.

The “old Lie” had been told time and again in the popular press and public rhetoric. The use of literature and painting in the service of war was mocked mercilessly in the nonsense verse of the Dada movement and in the nightmare paintings of the surrealists. To clean away the damage that propaganda had done to the literary arts—and indeed to language itself—radical steps were necessary. No longer could dismembered or mangled corpses be sanitized as “the fallen,” nor the butchery of the trenches portrayed as heroic. Artists throughout Europe denounced the obscenities of a war fought for what the poet Ezra Pound called a “botched civilization.” The millions of men slaughtered deserved more than elevated prose they deserved the unadulterated truth.

At the same time, the arts saw a counterrevolution, a movement back in time that highlighted the power of classical, religious, and romantic forms to memorialize the dead. Modernism excited, shocked, and stimulated, but it did not help people mourn. For that, a bereaved generation turned to the classical art of Edwin Lutyens’s cenotaph in London, the religious art of Rouault, and the sculptures and lithographs of mothers mourning their dead sons created by the German artist Käthe Kollwitz, whose own son had been killed in Belgium in 1914.

After the war, a generation of soldiers wrote their memoirs, which sold by the millions. The story they told was binary—the jarring contrast between innocence and experience, between hope and disillusionment. It depicted the unimaginable awfulness of the war, during which the millions of men in the trenches entered a world as inhospitable and desolate as the dark side of the moon. There they encountered artillery fire—the great killer of the Great War—on a scale the world had never seen before.

As a consequence, 5 million of the men who died in the war have no known graves. The stalemated war on the western front meant that unceasing bombardments pulverized the corpses buried in makeshift cemeteries. On the eastern front, the war was so fluid and covered such distances that finding bodies, let alone identifying and burying them, wasn’t possible. In effect, war had been transformed from a killing machine into a vanishing act.

For fully half the men who were killed in the war, nothing was left but their names. That, and the scarier, shakier, more intolerant world that the war to end all wars created.


Historical Context: The Global Effect of World War I

A recent list of the hundred most important news stories of the twentieth century ranked the onset of World War I eighth. This is a great error. Just about everything that happened in the remainder of the century was in one way or another a result of World War I, including the Bolshevik Revolution in Russia, World War II, the Holocaust, and the development of the atomic bomb. The Great Depression, the Cold War, and the collapse of European colonialism can also be traced, at least indirectly, to the First World War.

World War I killed more people--more than 9 million soldiers, sailors, and flyers and another 5 million civilians--involved more countries--28--and cost more money--$186 billion in direct costs and another $151 billion in indirect costs--than any previous war in history. It was the first war to use airplanes, tanks, long range artillery, submarines, and poison gas. It left at least 7 million men permanently disabled.

World War I probably had more far-reaching consequences than any other proceeding war. Politically, it resulted in the downfall of four monarchies--in Russia in 1917, in Austria-Hungary and Germany in 1918, and in Turkey in 1922. It contributed to the Bolshevik rise to power in Russia in 1917 and the triumph of fascism in Italy in 1922. It ignited colonial revolts in the Middle East and in Southeast Asia.

Economically, the war severely disrupted the European economies and allowed the United States to become the world's leading creditor and industrial power. The war also brought vast social consequences, including the mass murder of Armenians in Turkey and an influenza epidemic that killed over 25 million people worldwide.

Few events better reveal the utter unpredictability of the future. At the dawn of the 20th century, most Europeans looked forward to a future of peace and prosperity. Europe had not fought a major war for 100 years. But a belief in human progress was shattered by World War I, a war few wanted or expected. At any point during the five weeks leading up to the outbreak of fighting the conflict might have been averted. World War I was a product of miscalculation, misunderstanding, and miscommunication.

No one expected a war of the magnitude or duration of World War I. At first the armies relied on outdated methods of communication, such as carrier pigeons. The great powers mobilized more than a million horses. But by the time the conflict was over, tanks, submarines, airplane-dropped bombs, machine guns, and poison gas had transformed the nature of modern warfare. In 1918, the Germans fired shells containing both tear gas and lethal chlorine. The tear gas forced the British to remove their gas masks the chlorine then scarred their faces and killed them.


Historical Context: The Global Effect of World War I

A recent list of the hundred most important news stories of the twentieth century ranked the onset of World War I eighth. This is a great error. Just about everything that happened in the remainder of the century was in one way or another a result of World War I, including the Bolshevik Revolution in Russia, World War II, the Holocaust, and the development of the atomic bomb. The Great Depression, the Cold War, and the collapse of European colonialism can also be traced, at least indirectly, to the First World War.

World War I killed more people--more than 9 million soldiers, sailors, and flyers and another 5 million civilians--involved more countries--28--and cost more money--$186 billion in direct costs and another $151 billion in indirect costs--than any previous war in history. It was the first war to use airplanes, tanks, long range artillery, submarines, and poison gas. It left at least 7 million men permanently disabled.

World War I probably had more far-reaching consequences than any other proceeding war. Politically, it resulted in the downfall of four monarchies--in Russia in 1917, in Austria-Hungary and Germany in 1918, and in Turkey in 1922. It contributed to the Bolshevik rise to power in Russia in 1917 and the triumph of fascism in Italy in 1922. It ignited colonial revolts in the Middle East and in Southeast Asia.

Economically, the war severely disrupted the European economies and allowed the United States to become the world's leading creditor and industrial power. The war also brought vast social consequences, including the mass murder of Armenians in Turkey and an influenza epidemic that killed over 25 million people worldwide.

Few events better reveal the utter unpredictability of the future. At the dawn of the 20th century, most Europeans looked forward to a future of peace and prosperity. Europe had not fought a major war for 100 years. But a belief in human progress was shattered by World War I, a war few wanted or expected. At any point during the five weeks leading up to the outbreak of fighting the conflict might have been averted. World War I was a product of miscalculation, misunderstanding, and miscommunication.

No one expected a war of the magnitude or duration of World War I. At first the armies relied on outdated methods of communication, such as carrier pigeons. The great powers mobilized more than a million horses. But by the time the conflict was over, tanks, submarines, airplane-dropped bombs, machine guns, and poison gas had transformed the nature of modern warfare. In 1918, the Germans fired shells containing both tear gas and lethal chlorine. The tear gas forced the British to remove their gas masks the chlorine then scarred their faces and killed them.


Tonton videonya: Pengaruh Perang Dunia terhadap Politik Global (Mungkin 2022).